Introduction and Background With the popular accessibility of genome sequencing, interpreting genetic variation has become a central challenge in medical genetics. Identifying disease-associated variation within a vast background of neutral variation is key to both gene discovery and diagnostics. This is of particular importance in the study of newly arising variants and functionally essential protein domains. Variants which cause protein sequence changes play an important role in disease, alongside other factors such as aberrant regulation of gene and protein activity....
Everyone knows the importance of exercise, but the people are not much aware of the importance of protein and how it affects the human body in muscle recovery. Actually, muscle is starving for protein after high-intensity exercise. we all know that carbohydrates are a crucial fuel source throughout training, also perform a major role in helping recovery after exercise. However, the importance of protein is less known. There is no uncertainty that protein ingestion improves athletes recover from training, but...
Introduction Protein Kinase A kinase is an enzyme serves as catalyst which facilitates the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates. This process is known as phosphorylation, where the substrate gains a phosphate group (and become phosphorylated substrate) and the high-energy ATP molecule donates a phosphate group (and become as ADP). On the other hand, the de-phosphorylation process is when the phosphorylated substrate donates a phosphate group back to the ADP which become as ATP accordingly....
Food, substance consisting essentially of protein, carbohydrate, fat, and other nutrients used in the body of an organism to sustain growth and vital processes and to furnish energy. The absorption and utilisation of food by the body is fundamental to nutrition and is facilitated by digestion. Protein, highly complex substance that is present in all living organisms. Proteins are of great nutritional value and are directly involved in the chemical processes essential for life. Proteins are species-specific; that is, the...
Introduction In most or all living systems, proteins are the principle structural and functional polymers made up of single amino acid monomers. They have a wide range of functions, which include but are not limited to, the catalysis of metabolic reactions and transport of vitamins, minerals, oxygen and other fuels. On the other hand, some proteins form the structural skeleton of tissues whereas others serve a role in nerve transmission, muscle contraction, cell motility. Other functions include functions in the...
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Protein is an important nutrient. Aside from its many benefits, it can also help you shed that stubborn weight you have been trying to lose for months, and make you feel full for longer hours. However, it is essential to control the intake of protein as too much of it can cause more harm than good. There are many sumptuous dishes that can supply you with proteins, regardless of the diet you need. Contrary to people’s opinions, healthy protein sources...
Introduction Spectrophotometer A spectrophotometer is an instrument that measures the transmittance or absorbance of a sample as a function of the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation . Hence, spectrophotometric methods are widely used to measure the concentration of a solute in a solution, and in this case, protein by determining its absorbance at 595nm . A spectrophotometer consists of many parts. In short, the main components of the spectrophotometer are: A source that emits a broad band of electromagnetic radiation. A...
Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to determine the absorbance and concentration of two samples (2% milk and almond milk) compared to standard concentrations. The absorbances were found through spectrophotometry of each sample. The result of this test showed that the amount of protein in the 2% milk and almond milk were less than the majority of the standard samples. The hypothesis was supported by the findings of this experiment. Introduction Proteins are composed of amino acid chains and...
Comparing the protein concentration of unstimulated and stimulated tears, the data displayed an equal variance with a T test P-value of 0.224. The P-value signifies there was no significant difference in protein concentration between stimulated and unstimulated tears. Fullard and Snyder (1990) concluded eight out the twelve proteins of tear concentration were found to be significantly higher in unstimulated tears compared with that of stimulated tears. These proteins found to be higher were IgA, IgA-SC, IgA1, IgA2, IgM, IgG, Transferrin,...