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Research Paper on Deforestation

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What are the impacts of deforestation on a sustainable future?

Deforestation is the process of removing trees and forests from a landscape. This may be done for many reasons including making space for other land uses such as to harvest for wood resources or for agriculture. Although it might not be something that we see or hear about every day, deforestation is a widespread problem, which exists all across the globe and has been there for many years.

It is true that there are a lot of trees on earth in fact forest covers a quarter of all land surfaces on earth but the problem is the rate at which we harvest them. Currently, humans are cutting down forests at a rate of 36 football fields per minute. I believe deforestation has adverse effects, which could only be mitigated by taking the right actions timely. Hence, I think this is a relevant topic to tackle.

A sustainable future refers to making the world a better and safer place for everyone without destroying the possibilities for the next generations. If you wonder if something is sustainable you can ask yourself can we do this over and over again forever?

Main research:

Impacts of deforestation

The aftermath of deforestation is devastating. The aftermath includes loss of biodiversity, global warming, climate imbalance, and soil erosion.

All the consequences of deforestation have severe impacts on a sustainable life. From previous generations plants have been utilized for different purposes and even today many plants are being used e.g. Khella and Quinine are used for medical treatments. Loss of biodiversity means the extinction of such plants. If we lose these plants we will be putting a negative effect on sustainable living. Our upcoming generations may not have access to these plants.

Tropical deforestation is held responsible for approximately 21% of world greenhouse gas emissions. The forests of the world are more than just collections of trees. Forests help regulate the atmosphere by alleviating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions that lead to global climate change. Global warming leads to the melting of glaciers and poor air quality, this means if deforestation continues at this pace our future generations will lack pure drinking water and will have to face such air which will cause different diseases e.g. lung cancer.

Trees maintain humidity and regulate temperatures. Removing trees means loss of transpiration which means fewer clouds forming and a drier climate. Also, the loss of tree roots means massive erosion so very little can grow in the area. Without trees, there would be no other way to maintain and regulate the earth’s climate. If we keep on cutting trees, it is going to have adverse effects on our upcoming sons, grandsons, and so on because they no longer would have clean air and would face increased humidity.

Additionally, trees play a key role in the earth’s water cycle by balancing water in the atmosphere and water on land. If deforestation continues at its current rate then in many areas there will be soil erosion as there will be no trees to regulate moisture in the ground. Infertile soil means no crops thus this will make its impact on a sustainable life.

Sustainability is meeting the needs of the current generation without harming the needs of the future ones, however, such rapid deforestation will leave no trees for the upcoming ones. The future generation will then have no timber or any other by-products.

Global Perspective

Deforestation is prevalent all across the world. Several countries are already suffering from its adverse effects. It sounds ironic but the truth is that the more developed and highly industrialized, countries suffer from the highest rates of deforestation. There are various factors held responsible for such problems- overpopulation, industrialization, and inefficient plans to control the rapid rate of deforestation.

According to FAO, 50% of the world’s tropical forests have been cleared. A report from 2017 claims that each day, at least 100 species are killed within rainforests.

The following are the causes of deforestation:

  • Logging: One of the main reasons for deforestation is logging, which is the gathering of trees so that the wood can be utilized for construction or manufacturing. Aside from this, wood-based industries like furniture, matchsticks, or paper also require a substantial amount of wood.
  • Urbanization: Another big reason why trees are rapidly being removed is urbanization. With cities becoming overpopulated trees are cleared to further expand cities and create roads.
  • Agricultural purposes: The overgrowing demand for food production requires trees to be cleared so that the land can be utilized for agricultural purposes such as farming and cattle ranching.
  • Mining: The need for mining is also another reason for the clearance of trees. Different types of mining require a vast amount of empty land in order to mine for deposits of minerals and metals etc.

Continentally, Africa is most affected by deforestation. Sources state that deforestation has already wiped out around 90% of West Africa’s original forest. According to the analytical view provided by FAO, during the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s, Africa lost the highest percentage of tropical forests among all continents. Congo and Nigeria are listed among the countries, which are affected by large-scale deforestation. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) has stated Nigeria is one of the worst countries when it comes to deforestation. Although the African government has been taking action by implementing laws and taking different measures, those are not just enough.

The reason for such high rates of deforestation in Nigeria is a large demand for wood. Research depicts that over 60% of Nigerians use firewood for cooking. Large-scale deforestation takes place, especially in developing countries where there is rapid growth in industries. In Asia, China, Indonesia, and India is one of those countries that are facing problems due to deforestation. The United States and Australia sadly are also listed on this list.¬

Few countries from Europe have comparatively a low rate of deforestation. This is because many projects and campaigns are being held in order to prevent deforestation. In these countries, not only the government but the people there selves are enthusiastically helping to solve the problem of the rapid cutting of trees. Sweden and Finland are the countries in Europe with the most forest cover each having more than twenty hundred thousand hectares. These countries have tried their best to maintain the forests by controlling deforestation.

Such projects and campaigns lead to a healthier life and tend to reduce dangerous diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. The lack of such projects and campaigns in Africa and some parts of Asia is the reason why malaria and dengue are so widespread and common.

National Perspective

Pakistan is a developing country. Every day new societies are inaugurated and due to such massive urbanization my country Pakistan faces severe problems related to deforestation. According to a report less than 5 % of Pakistan’s area is covered with forests. The rate of deforestation 1.5% is very high and alarming. This deforestation has adverse effects on Pakistan’s sustainable life.

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Regrettably, Pakistan has one of the highest rates of deforestation. Punjab and Sindh have been affected by the effects of deforestation. Cites such as Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, and Rawalpindi have become highly populated mainly due to rural-urban migration. Now, this increased population means an increase in cutting down trees. This gives rise to the birth of different diseases and many other problems.

Pakistan has fertile land in certain places, In fact, the crops grown in these lands are one of the major sources of revenue generated by the country. However, when we start cutting off the trees, the water from the hills will freely fall down the slope, this will cause floods and will lead to the destruction of crops and lands. Places like Swat, Chitral, and Dir have been affected in this way. Loss of crops will harm the goals of sustainable living. Though we might be able to fulfill our requirements our upcoming generations will remain to starve.

Industrialization in Pakistan is at its peak. The new factories established in Pakistan bring along a lot of pollution. Pakistan already has a very limited number of trees to balance the environment and of course, the increasing pollution is not helping. Due to this, the air becomes dirtier, which then causes problems with people to breathe. There are a number of diseases caused by this:

  • Lung diseases and respiratory problems
    • Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cardiovascular problems
    • Heart diseases, other cardiovascular disorders

There have been 20,000 deaths caused by pollution in Pakistan. The polluted air of Pakistan does not allow it to follow a sustainable living.

Personal Perspective

According to my perspective, Industrialization is the major cause of deforestation, which then impacts sustainable life. Lately, the whole world has developed and many industries have been established. Firstly these industries require vast lands, which they could be built on, and this causes limited land left for upcoming generations. Some industries are so huge that sometimes they don’t even need that much of an area. To me, this is very upsetting.

Secondly, established industries pollute the environment. Air pollution, sound pollution, and even water pollution are caused by these industries. This means that our future generations will lack pure drinking water and will also have poor air.

Statistics also show the development of industries being one of the major causes of deforestation, however, I firmly believe that we can do a lot to prevent this from happening.

Possible scenarios

One of the major world issues today is deforestation, which is predicted to rise even further because of urbanization, industries, and many other contributing factors.

Deforestation has adverse effects on sustainable living. It leaves no crops and other necessary resources for future generations. The goal of a sustainable life is harmed.

If this continues at the same pace then the world will soon run out of essential resources. Clean air would not be available. There will be a shortage of clean water, crops, and fertile land. The environment is harmed and if people can die today because of this then ten times more people can die in the following years. If not acted upon right now, the world’s future could be very horrific.

Possible courses of action

The rapid rate of deforestation should be immediately put to an end. By taking simple steps we can prevent deforestation and can reduce its rate by a great margin. All of us together can make a big change in stopping the swift cutting down of trees.

The following are some ways to do this

  • Starting from the basics, we need to plant a tree. Reforestation and afforestation programmers should be focused upon.
  • Spreading awareness regarding the significance of trees and the effects it has on a sustainable life.
  • Strict laws should be formed in order to prevent further deforestation

These are a few primary steps we can take. By taking these steps I believe we can produce a big change.

Personal response

After having realized the importance of trees and their effects on a sustainable life, I have decided to take some steps in response. I have promised myself that I will plant more trees around me and also water the ones we currently have.

Furthermore, I take this as my duty to spread awareness among people. I use social media all the time so why not create a page on creating awareness?

I believe these small steps if taken by everybody, can make a drastic change. These can allow us to counter rapid deforestation, thus taking steps towards a sustainable life.

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Research Paper on Deforestation. (2023, April 21). Edubirdie. Retrieved March 2, 2024, from
“Research Paper on Deforestation.” Edubirdie, 21 Apr. 2023,
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