“Whether we accept it or not, this will likely be the century that determines what the optimal human population is for our planet. It will come about in one of two ways: Either we decide to manage our own numbers, to avoid a collision of every line on civilization’s graph – or nature will do it for us, in the form of famines, thirst, climate chaos, crashing ecosystems, opportunistic disease, and wars over dwindling resources that finally cut us down to size.”
Alan Weisman, Countdown: Our Last Best Hope for a Future on Earth?
Overpopulation is a paradox issue in the 21st century. At one level it is a great contribution to the fastest growing economies of the nation while at the sometimes it made a challenge for the food security of the nation. This controversial issue is set up in here in my Essay and will be trying to answer questions built on my literature views and personal life experiences.
In this essay, I incorporate the definition of population and overpopulation, arguments and disagreements of overpopulation by different scholars, about the advantages and disadvantages of Overpopulation? Why it is Overpopulated? The evidence of overpopulation? The controlling mechanism of Overpopulation? And finally, I will bring up the two contrary ideas centered on the shareds of evidence and set my personal life experience connected with the overpopulation.
Definition of the population: what is Population? Is a group of organisms, all the same species, that occupies a particular area. The term is used of the number of individuals of a species within an ecosystem, or (statistically) of any group of like individuals (Michael Allby,2009). The whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region or the total of individuals occupying an area or making up a whole (Merriam Webster dictionary, since 1828) SINCE 1
What is Overpopulation? It is the situation of getting an excessive amount of population compared to the environmental capacity given which acts to cause worldwide issues such as the ecological toxic waste and the breach of human being rights (Saigon Model UN,2016). The situation that arises when the rapid growth of a population, usually a human population, results in numbers that cannot be supported by the available resources, such as space and food. This occurs when the birth rate exceeds the death rate, or when immigration exceeds emigration, or when a combination of these factors exists (Elizabeth Martin and Robert Hine 2014)
[bookmark: _Hlk1420431]Overpopulation has been one of the main worldwide worries of the previous fifty years. The swift growth of the globe’s population implies many additional mouths to consume, increasing the likelihood of gathering food crisis, and becoming overpopulation a main charitable concern. The improved labor force allocation to non-Western countries and the estimated expansions in the settlement have made it a key geopolitical worry. The expected growth in reserve treatment and correlated smog has been it a major conservation fear(Ord 2014)
The globe’s people come to approximately 7.6 billion as of middle-2017, suggesting that the globe has combined nearly one billion populations throughout the last twelve years. Sixty percent of the world’s people live in Asia (4.5 billion), 17 per cent in Africa (1.3 billion), 10 per cent in Europe (742 million), 9 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean (646 million), and the leftover 6 per cent in Northern America (361 million) and Oceania (41 million). China (1.4 billion) and India (1.3 billion) stay behind the two most heavily populated nations of the planet, encompassing 19 and 18 percent of the worldwide total, respectively. The planet’s people are estimated to increase in intensity by vaguely more than one billion people over the next 13 years, touching 8.6 billion in 2030, and to rise further than to 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100 (UNDESA,2017).
In the past two decades, many Governments in less developed regions have realized the importance of reducing high rates of population growth, while a growing number of Governments in more developed regions have expressed concerns about low rates of population growth and population aging (UNDESA, 2013)
The relationship between overpopulation and living requirements has remained a foundation of dispute. Grounded on the idea of controversy, scholars are split among double concepts about the overpopulation philosophy. One perspective says that individuals rise, and expansion help nation-state’s financial system by promoting financial development and other perspective is hypothesis on Malthus population increase is harmful to a nation’s economy due to a variety of difficulties caused by the expansion (UNDESA, 2013). For instance, overpopulation and population expansion spot a huge sum of a burden on organic supplies, which result in a chain response of difficulties as the nation develop. In this essay, I explain the advantages and disadvantages of overpopulation centered on different literature and placed my arguments.
Literature centered Advice of those who are supporting the idea of the advantages of overpopulation can be divided into two groupings. The earliest is the influential advantages given just about by the existence of extra people. For instance, if extra people create brand new innovations which enhance the life expectancy of the whole world, then this is a clear-cut value of overpopulation and should be considered opposed to disadvantages. The next classification is the inherent value of the life expectancy of the extra people. It believes that it is great for those families to exist and to understanding the pleasures, enjoys, and qualities that natural life can extend. For example, when we see an infertile couple who, after some thought, decide to have a baby. This baby will make it to its close relative lives healthier in a variety of ways, chief among them is maybe the special connections they will form which the couple wouldn’t have else been able to knowledge. The baby will, of course, have a business expense to them and will take up time that would have been spent on various leisure time events, but apparently, the happiness and happiness for the close relative are often enough to offset the expenses (Ord 2014)
A range of elements plays a part in the versions that depict India’s growing economy. Due to the rising population, a large labor force is thus established. The high rates of employment that India’s economic sectors, mainly agriculture and industry, began increasing their efficiency. The Upsurge in efficiency thus meant an increase in the production of supplies and public services. This intended that the country could now convene demands of the rising population without having to raise prices, making necessities affordable to the poor. The Indian Government acknowledged the high population growth of their nation, initiated fiscal policy on education and thus expanded their frontier through a rise in efficiency(Kothare 1999)
India has developed one of the planet’s quickest developing countries, mainly due to the rise in people increase creating a constructive effect on its long-run economic development. India is now ranked as one of the top makers in agriculture and is a top nation in terms of GDP in a growing country (Kothare 1999)
The ‘three Ps’ of” population, participation, and productivity are not independent of one another, nor are population and productivity in conflict” as neo-classical growth styles indicate. People development and settlement can push efficiency expansion and long-run upgrades in Australia’s real living standards. Exposed labor force and investment marketplaces are especially crucial in preventing power restrictions that might otherwise arise in the context of the drilling growth(Kirchner and Kirchner 2011).
China rural areas, it was of an excessive significance that male babies are born. The one-baby plan lead mothers to murder the infant female child or aim for a second child to be a male, but prior to this slightly “lenient” policy in 1983, a decade earlier woman was forced to abort whatever of the prenatal period phase (Baus 2017)
In some rural area people, growth is seen positively as policymakers and economists believe that bigger populace promotes economic expansion both in terms of market places and customers Kopnina and Washington (2016) (cited The Economist 2012a, 2012b; Blowfield 2013). New populace offers potential properties, compensating for the (progressively longer living wage) aging, and promotes “flourishing” market. Western and Northern European countries are interested in drawing more (cheap) labor, and an infinite quantity of customers for growing markets. Henceforth high fertility is often commemorated (Kopnina and Washington 2016)
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Other thought manly based on the religious perspective evidently more virtuous and “enlightened” justifications for not addressing population are the “sacredness” of (human) life. The Western Explanation/ individuality ritual corresponds with the Christian backing of what the Roman Catholics: “Every sperm is sacred. Every sperm is great. If a sperm is wasted, God gets quite irate” Kopnina and Washington (2016) (cited Chapman et al. 2003)
The writers argued that a large number of population growth contributed to the development of several countries. Their idea mainly focused on for instance to solve the scarcity of human working power (the youth played the lion-sharing in one nation economic development, Especially in innovation, agricultural productivity, skilled human power and for successions). Which leads the nations will be more prosperous? For instance, a large number of populations produce more products while the reverse is true. A large number of populations made one nation’s economy more prosperous and balanced the questions of demand and supply. This strength will make them produce surplus production for the export standard. In the above literature, they mentioned the cause of overpopulation reasoned by a religious perspective, especially Christianity. Christianity highly opposed abortion and supporting the idea of childbirth.
In general, My Personal arguments in the cause of overpopulation is partially-support all the idea which is mentioned by scholars. It is crucial to secure economic, social and political problems in the developed world yet, it is not a general truth as far as my understanding for instance in Ethiopia a large number of household population they failed in economic crisis for the reason that if they lacked enough food, shelter, education, medicine and farming land.
In my experience, other reasons for overpopulation are the selection of child sex. For example, my uncle has four wives since seeking new sons. He has now fourteen daughters and three sons from four wives. In our culture polygamy is conceivable. Everybody he wants to get married more than one wife. The main cause of marrying more than one wife is to control a resource around his area and the question of his succession. According to our culture daughters had no right to control her father’s resources while now changing the situation yet, some rural and urban area still now continued. I personally believed that they get married off more than one wife is challenging those who are an inefficient economy, and which leads the country unstable, the cause of long-lasting famine, scrambling of natural resources and will make a crisis. So that I personally recommend that, it is an unnecessary thing and we will manage our resources we must be using family planning and other contraceptive methods and creating more awareness. Therefore, my argument is overpopulation is a crucial role in the advancement of the developed world while it is impossible in the developing world.
The Argumentative idea of the disadvantages of overpopulation is based on tangible explanations. High-fertility countries, has stayed above five children per woman; in most, not much shift has been seen in previous decades are low-income exemptions of some countries and are described by having a high percentage of the people below age 15, and a low percentage of oldest people. Social statistics are usually poor, with low point levels of learning attainment, high-level death, and high ranking levels of poverty while Low-fertility Nations mainly in the high-level-income group and many countries in the which fertility has been low (below 2.5 children per woman) for some time Some low- and middle-income nations in other regions(Economic, Divisiom et al. 2004)
[bookmark: _Hlk1527958]There has been a consistently high-level link among domestic revenue expansion and declining childbirth levels and among extended family wages and fertility. Economists and demographers, for the most part, agree that important ingredients of increased living requirements, such as growth, economic development and increasing prospects for non-agrarian employment, better educational levels, and better health all lead to changed parental perceptions of the costs and benefits of children, leading in turn to lower fertility. In other words, there is no longer much debate about whether or not improved economic conditions, whether at the family level or the societal level, lead to lower potency. (Sinding 2009). Although China performed a popular family tree-development strategy, it was one of the most radical advances ever suffered in the human being record(Baus 2017). Uncertainty China did not diminish its potency to 1.5 or even one infant per woman, the subsequent reduction of supplies would be catastrophic (Baird,2011). In addition, China mothers with one child took importance in accommodation, improved healthcare and learning prospects, while people with a double baby had to pay back those advantages (Baus 2017)
However, the developed countries have done the fertility change and are suffering below-alternative fertility levels, many countries in less industrialized regions, particularly in Africa and Asia, are still suffering mild to high levels of fertility (UNDESA, 2013). Sickness, environment change over, lack of nutrition and tap water, inequity in supply, lack of extended family development, and a weakening financial system are telling signs that national and international organizations want to act on time(Baus 2017)
Therefore, in my life experience, Ethiopians are happy in the large numbers of the population. For example, they are contemplating ‘child is wealth’. They had to declare this idea since of the sum of reasons: such as war, expansion, succession, extending of large family size, cultivation, hunting, and gathering. Still, now the birth of a new baby would make life is easier. However, the drought in the 1980s made great famine and malnourishment in the country and a large number of peoples died because of the famine in the history of Ethiopia. Malthus argued that today’s production guarantees to the present population. The population number increases while the food also has been multiplied. Which means the supply of food production must be increased. This implies that the population numbers determined the production capacity. The increasing number of the population is directly affected the production capacity of nations. (Malthus 2013)
I Personally, from literature evidence and my life experiences I believed that the Overpopulation of any countries leads to the insecurity of food, instability, emigration of youths for seeking new jobs and better living condition in western world and illiteracy. The overpopulation effect shadowed the indigenous thought based on the birth of a new baby. In addition to this Baus 2017 stated that a resolution to people development, countries depend on each other to donate to the well-being of the international population, while at the same time, people within this group act in their own attention. The real solution to overpopulation, or a catastrophe, is in the response to whether the physical funds and economic resources can be allocated uniformly to preserve sustainability and apply methods on potential potency rate. If the “humankind abandons in its combat to fight overpopulation, then this issue may as well be the way the globe ends”.(Baus 2017). The ecological catastrophe is quickly quickening, yet much of high society and academic circles still disregards or rejects that a key motorist is an overpopulation. (Kopnina and Washington 2016)
The root of overpopulation is lack of birth control mechanism, family planning programs, early marriage (It’s rooted historical and cultural background e.g. in Ethiopia context in the northern part of the country region believe that early marriage useful to manage social relation among marital families and wealth) the young daughters in order to obtain economic stability in the families. In this case, the family of the spouse receives different kinds of material rewards from the coaches. The another reason is family maximize the chance of survival of the children due to high rate of mortality or the statutes of succession of his/her family, economic , Social and cultural benefit’s , social and mental poverty, migrations, illiteracy, small numbers of family size they need more birth child, rural-urban migrations, unsafe sex, rape, and unemployment.
The evidence of overpopulation is the misuse of the natural reserves is a wasteful fabrication. Which goes to a shortage of supplies and it made life more challengeable, Increasing the costs of farming production to the impoverished families don’t buy any kinds of food and which made food scarcity and take the lead to various kinds of catastrophe. The rising number of street children is the major factors that influence the natural environment resource to meet their needs.
The biodiversity loss of human being needs for a source such as food-stuff, fuel play a key role in driving biodiversity degradation. This indicates pressure on ecosystems over-exploitation to the resources, pollutions, climate change, extinction of plants and animals. The birth of mention case increasing demands of commodities and public services. It rises inequality of demands and resource and which creates social disorder like shortage of food, malnutrition, consumption of natural resources and worldwide warming up.
The controlling mechanism of overpopulation is by increasing awareness in family planning both the rural and urban area, using family planning enforcement(this idea is successful in people’s republic of China by one child policy), national population policy has raised the marriage age, promoting females education, giving incentive to small numbers family size, birth contraception methods, creating positive incentives for sterilizations, the government popularized small families by passing laws and discouraging big families by denying benefits to more children.
According to UNDESA, (2013), 97 percent of Administrations allowed abortion to keep a female’s life. A rising amount of nations have relaxed their abortion rules since 1996, yet in about two thirds of nations in 2013 abortion was approved only when the natural or psychological health of the mom was imperiled, and in about half of the countries only when the gestation caused from a rape or incest or in cases of fetal impairment. Events to reduce potency have involved incorporating extended family preparing and safe parenthood programmes into major wellbeing treatment structures, offering access to procreative wellbeing public services, advocating the accountability of men in carnal and procreative health, raising the bare minimum legal age at marriage, enhancing female education and work prospects, depressing son predilection, and offering low price, reliable and efficient contraception. (UNDESA, 2013).
Generally, in this essay, I was tried to explain about the overpopulation problem and benefits. The birth of a new baby made happens, passion, joy and wealth while the resources they consume is not compatible, it led to famine and it creates a nation-wide crisis. Grounded on the above-mentioned literature and in my life experience overpopulation made a great challenge for the sustainable human food security, challenging the demands and supply resources, which indicates one population to be in a disaster. To control the overpopulation strong awareness must be created in the interworld, empowerment of women, effectively use of family planning both men and women, implementing local, national and international policies reflecting social changes.
The past three to four decades, an increasing amount of Administrations in less established areas along with comparatively high-level potency concentrations have implemented strategies to reduce potency. While confronted with ever-dwindling, below-alternative potency levels, Administrations in more established areas have gradually embraced family-sociable programs targeted at increasing potency (UNDESA, 2013). A large number of population size in one family it is the cause of worst life, over-crowdedness, more pollution, the family will be illiterate, unhealthy, undressed and generally the lower quality of life. It precedes one country dependent on foreign aid and the country will be foreign policy enslavement. All in all, overpopulation affects ecology, human life, the cause of malnutrition of human beings, environment, and animals.
- Baird, Vanessa. The No-Nonsense Guide to World Population. New Internationalist Publications Ltd. United Kingdom: 2011
- Baus, D. (2017). ‘Overpopulation and the Impact on the Environment.’
- Economic, N. U. D. o. I., et al. (2004). World population to 2300, United Nations Publications.
- Kirchner, S. and S. Kirchner (2011). Hands, Mouths, and Minds: Three Perspectives on Population Growth and Living Standards, Centre for Independent Studies.
- Kopnina, H. and H. Washington (2016). ‘Discussing why population growth is still ignored or denied.’ Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment 14(2): 133-143.
- Kothare, R. (1999). ‘Does India’s Population Growth Has A Positive Effect on Economic Growth?’ Social Science 410: 2-14.
- Malthus, T. (2013). An Essay on the Principle of Population. An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers, 1798, Cosimo, Inc.
- Ord, T. (2014). ‘Overpopulation or underpopulation.’ Is the planet full: 46-60.
- Sinding, S. W. (2009). ‘Population, poverty and economic development.’ Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364(1532): 3023-3030.
- UNDESA, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. New York: United Nations.
- UNDESA, World Population Policies 2013 Department of Economic and Social Affairs population division United Nations New York, 2013 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/population since1828[accessed 23/02/2019]