Deductive reasoning is when an individual forms collusion from a general idea. Inductive reasoning is when a general conclusion is formulated from a given fact. A good example of deductive reasoning is when you believe that all seniors are bad in driving. Therefore, you will not allow Mr. John, who is 70 years old, to drive your car. Such incidences transpire to discrimination in most cases (Gergely, 2020). For instance, women are considered to be inferior to men, and in this case, they are the most discriminated against when they are perusing ‘men’s job.’ An example of inductive reasoning is; red lights are meant to stop accidents; therefore, the reason why mike did not get an accident is that he stopped at the red light. Such decision machining is considered dangerous and subjective. For instance, women discrimination occurs a lot of times due to inductive reasoning. When a woman does not get a top post in an organization or a company, they believe that she did not get the job because she is a woman.
Displaced aggression is a type of aggression that occurs when a person cannot aggress toward the source of provocation (Buss, 2015). Instead of someone focusing their aggression on what angered them, they tend to focus their aggression on someone else who had nothing to do with their aggressive behaviors. Research shows that aggression is displaced when the victim is at the wrong place at the wrong time, and in most cases, the target is innocent.
Individuals who suffer from displaced aggression most of the time are workers who cannot direct their anger to their colleagues or their bosses, and therefore they tend to direct it to someone else or something else (Buss, 2015). For example, they will direct their constrained aggression to their pets. Also, the people who suffer from this kind of disorder have a very sensitive emotion. They tend to react aggressively to any incident that might provoke them, yet the main issue is not the question at hand, but it’s because of constrained aggression. Another example of aggressive discrimination is road rage. Aggressive driving in the roads is mostly due to misplaced aggression (Buss, 2015). Nonetheless, aggressive driving is less serious than road rage. This sort of aggression has led to discrimination of the minority. For instance, when an employee cannot express their aggression to their seniors, they will tend to direct their anger to their subordinate. This will probably become a recurring case in case there is a misunderstanding between the employee and his senior supervisor.
According to research, implicit bias suggests that people can perform on the basis of chauvinism and discrimination without being conscious of their actions. A group of psychologists conducted research on implicit biases that were directed towards socially discriminated groups such as African Americans and women (Brownsein, 2016) For instance, frank has a belief that men and women should be considered equal and that women can progress in their respective career fields. However, Frank finds himself most of the time not to trust decisions made by women in his workplace. This sort of behavior exhibited by Frank can be termed as implicit gender bias. This concludes that what a person says might not be the exact thing they feel, think, or behave.
In-group favoritism is commonly referred to as in-group bias (Timberlake, 2018). This theory suggests that people in most cases show favoritism pattern to the members of the same group as theirs. This is evident in the allocation of funds, among other may things. In most cases, in-group favoritism mostly arises due to the formation of culture to be a given group of people. Realistic conflict theory suggests that group conflict arises when two groups of different cultures do not have a common agreement on an idea. Realistic conflict theory suggests that groups can clash due to unequal distribution of resources and, in most cases, lead to discrimination. For example, when men are more favored in a given work setting, they can develop a culture that will not favor the women and might consider them as a minority (Timberlake, 2018). Favoritism of the men group will lead them to develop a superiority complex, and this will make them look down on women.
The out-group homogeneity effect refers to how one perceives an out-group (Brown & Pehrson, 2020). People tend to believe that people of an out-group are more similar to members of an in-group. It tends to focus on how the out-group is different from the in-group. It focuses on how diverse the out-group is. Cases of out-group homogeneity are always experienced in racial groups, social, and even gender groups. A research conducted on students whereby a class of both white and black students was introduced to a class comprised of white students only, the class of white students was later introduced to the class of different races and asked if they remember meeting that class (Brown & Pehrson, 2020). A majority of white students recognized the white students from the other class accurately, but they did not recognize the blacks, this is because they considered themselves more similar to the white students.
What can be done to reduce prejudice and discrimination? One way to reduce prejudice and discrimination is bypassing laws and regulation that promotes the treatment of all people equally (Stephan & Banks, 2019). Strict punishment should be placed on people who are discriminating.