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What Are Coronaviruses And How Do They Invade Cells?

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Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, about 120 nanometers in diameter. They are susceptible to mutation and recombination and are therefore highly diverse. There are about 40 different varieties and they mainly infect human and non-human mammals and birds. They reside in bats and wild birds, and can spread to other animals and hence to humans. The virus that causes COVID-19 is thought to have originated in bats and then spread to snakes and pangolins and hence to humans, perhaps by contamination of meat from wild animals, as sold in China’s meat markets.

The corona-like appearance of coronaviruses is caused by so-called spike glycoproteins, or peplomers, which are necessary for the viruses to enter host cells. The spike has two subunits; one subunit, S1, binds to a receptor on the surface of the host’s cell; the other subunit, S2, fuses with the cell membrane. The cell membrane receptor for both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 is a form of angiotensin converting enzyme, ACE-2, different from the enzyme that is inhibited by conventional ACE-1 inhibitors, such as enalapril and ramipril.

Where and when COVID-19 was discovered

  • A pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan; China was first reported to the WHO Country Office in China on 31 December 2019.
  • WHO is working 24/7 to analyses data, provide advice, coordinate with partners, help countries prepare, increase supplies and manage expert networks.
  • The outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020.
  • On 11 February 2020, WHO announced a name for the new coronavirus disease: COVID-19.

The risks from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), for workers depends on how extensively the virus spreads between people; the severity of resulting illness; pre-existing medical conditions workers may have; and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus and the relative success of these measures. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides

Certain people, including older adults and those with underlying conditions such as heart or lung disease or diabetes, are at higher risk for developing more serious complications from COVID-19.

Classifying Risk of Worker Exposure to SARS-CoV-2

Worker risk of occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 during a pandemic may depend in part on the industry type and the need for contact within 6 feet of people known to be, or suspected of being, infected with SARS-CoV-2. Other factors, such as conditions in communities where employees live and work, their activities outside of work (including travel to COVID-19-affected areas), and individual health conditions, may also affect workers’ risk of getting COVID-19 and/or developing complications from the illness.

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OSHA has divided job tasks into four risk exposure levels: very high, high, medium, and lower risk, as shown in the occupational risk pyramid, below. The four exposure risk levels represent the probable distribution of risk. Most American workers will likely fall in the lower exposure risk (caution) or medium exposure risk levels

Lower Exposure Risk (Caution)

Jobs that do not require contact with people known to be, or suspected of being, infected with SARS-CoV-2. Workers in this category have minimal occupational contact with the public and other coworkers. Examples include:

  • Remote workers (i.e., those working from home during the pandemic).
  • Office workers who do not have frequent close contact with coworkers, customers, or the public.
  • Manufacturing and industrial facility workers who do not have frequent close contact with coworkers, customers, or the public.
  • Healthcare workers providing only telemedicine services.
  • Long-distance truck drivers.

Medium Exposure Risk

Jobs that require frequent/close contact with people who may be infected, but who are not known to have or suspected of having COVID-19. Workers in this category include:

  • Those who may have frequent contact with travelers who return from international locations with widespread COVID-19 transmission.
  • Those who may have contact with the general public (e.g., in schools, high population density work environments, and some high-volume retail settings).

High Exposure Risk

Jobs with a high potential for exposure to known or suspected sources of SARS-CoV-2. Workers in this category include:

  • Healthcare delivery and support staff (hospital staff who must enter patients’ rooms) exposed to known or suspected COVID-19 patients.
  • Medical transport workers (ambulance vehicle operators) moving known or suspected COVID-19 patients in enclosed vehicles.
  • Mortuary workers involved in preparing bodies for burial or cremation of people known to have, or suspected of having, COVID-19 at the time of death.

Very High Exposure Risk

Jobs with a very high potential for exposure to known or suspected sources of SARS-CoV-2 during specific medical, postmortem, or laboratory procedures. Workers in this category include:

  • Healthcare workers (e.g., doctors, nurses, dentists, paramedics, emergency medical technicians) performing aerosol-generating procedures (e.g., intubation, cough induction procedures, bronchoscopies, some dental procedures and exams, or invasive specimen collection) on known or suspected COVID-19 patients.
  • Healthcare or laboratory personnel collecting or handling specimens from known or suspected COVID-19 patients (e.g., manipulating cultures from known or suspected COVID-19 patients).
  • Morgue workers performing autopsies, which generally involve aerosol-generating procedures, on the bodies of people who are known to have, or are suspected of having, COVID-19 at the time of their death.

How does COVID-19 spread?

People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus. The disease spreads primarily from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth, which are expelled when a person with COVID-19 coughs, sneezes, or speaks. These droplets are relatively heavy, do not travel far and quickly sink to the ground. People can catch COVID-19 if they breathe in these droplets from a person infected with the virus. This is why it is important to stay at least 1 meter) away from others. These droplets can land on objects and surfaces around the person such as tables, doorknobs and handrails. People can become infected by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. This is why it is important to wash your hands regularly with soap and water or clean with alcohol-based hand rub.

How you can Protect yourself and others from the spread COVID-19

  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.
  • Maintain at least 1-meter (3 feet) distance between yourself and others. Why? When someone coughs, sneezes, or speaks they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person has the disease.
  • Avoid going to crowded places. Why? Where people come together in crowds, you are more likely to come into close contact with someone that has COIVD-19 and it is more difficult to maintain physical distance of 1 meter (3 feet).
  • Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth. Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and infect you.
  • Make sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately and wash your hands. Why? Droplets spread virus. By following good respiratory hygiene, you protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu and COVID-19.
  • Stay home and self-isolate even with minor symptoms such as cough, headache, mild fever, until you recover. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house, wear a mask to avoid infecting others. Why? Avoiding contact with others will protect them from possible COVID-19 and other viruses.
  • If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention, but call by telephone in advance if possible and follow the directions of your local health authority. Why? National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on the situation in your area. Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also protect you and help prevent spread of viruses and other infections.
  • Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities. Why? Local and national authorities are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.

References

  1. https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/covid-19/hazardrecognition.html
  2. https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/coronaviruses-a-general-introduction/
  3. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen
  4. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/04/coronavirus-covid-19-world-map-which-countries-have-the-most-cases-and-deaths
  5. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public

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What Are Coronaviruses And How Do They Invade Cells? (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved October 4, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/what-are-coronaviruses-and-how-do-they-invade-cells/
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What Are Coronaviruses And How Do They Invade Cells? [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/what-are-coronaviruses-and-how-do-they-invade-cells/> [Accessed 4 Oct. 2022].
What Are Coronaviruses And How Do They Invade Cells? [Internet] Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Oct 4]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/what-are-coronaviruses-and-how-do-they-invade-cells/
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