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Why Do Germinating Peas Consume More Oxygen: Research Essay

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Respiration Rates of Germinating and Non-Germinating Peas

Introduction

For the purpose of this experiment, it is essential to have background information on what cellular respiration does and how it works. Cellular respiration, in simple terms, is the process by which sugar is broken down into a form that is readily usable by the cell to form its various functions. According to Hill (2014),

“For animals, energy is made available for life processes via respiration—the slow combustion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins through which the chemical energy in food is captured in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) or released as heat.”

However, in plants, according to Brown and Schwartz (2008),

“Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are interconnected as the two processes combine to provide energy for use by the plant. Photosynthesis transforms radiant energy from the sun into chemical bond energy within the carbohydrate molecule. The chemical bond energy is transformed into a smaller unit of energy within the ATP molecule. The energy within the ATP molecule produced during cellular respiration allows photosynthesis to continue.”

As one can see, the processes for cellular respiration are essential for the life of an organism. In this experiment, the purpose was to determine if the state of germination has an effect on the rates of CO2 and O2 respiration. Using Vernier CO2 and O2 Gas Sensors, a BioChamber 250, and LabQuest software, the levels of gasses emitted by peas, leaves, and insects were measured and recorded. It is predicted that germinating peas will have a higher rate of respiration than non-germinated peas.

Materials and Methods

For this experiment, the goal was to test the different levels of gas respiration by peas by using an enclosed chamber connected to gas sensors that are monitored by an outside source. To do this, these materials were used:

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  • Vernier CO2 Gas Sensor
  • LabQuest
  • Thermometer
  • Vernier O2 Gas Sensor
  • LabQuest App
  • 25 germinated peas
  • BioChamber 250
  • Refrigerator
  • 25 non-germinated peas

The initial setup of this experiment was as follows:

  1. Set the CO2 Gas Sensor to the Low (0-10,000) setting.
  2. Attach both gas sensors to LabQuest.
  3. Select New from the File menu.

In testing the germinated peas, 25 germinated peas were placed into the BioChamber 250. The CO2 Gas Sensor was then placed horizontally into the neck of the chamber, while the O2 Gas Sensor was placed vertically into the top of the chamber. After 2 minutes, the collection of data was started. This process was also used for the testing of cold germinated peas, non-germinated peas, leaves in light, leaves in dark, and insects.

  • 25 Germinated Peas
  • 25 Cool Germinated Peas
  • 25 Non-Germinated Peas
  • Leaves in light
  • Leaves in dark
  • Insects

Time

  • 12 minutes in 3-minute increments
  • 12 minutes in 3-minute increments
  • 12 minutes in 3-minute increments

Concentrate

  • PPM
  • PPM
  • PPM= Parts per million

Results

During the experiment, it was found that germinated peas did have a higher rate of respiration than the non-germinated peas as shown in Figure 1. The results show that as CO2 increased, O2 decreased for the germinated peas. On the other hand, non-germinated peas' CO2 decreased as the O2 increased. As the leaves and insects were a side test for comparison, it showed that leaves exposed to light had much higher rates of respiration than the leaves in the dark as shown in Figure 2. However, both sets of leaves showed signs of CO2 conversion to O2. For the insects, a living creatures, the PPM levels started at a much higher rate as they consumed O2 and released CO2 as shown in Figure 3.

Peas

  • O2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)
  • CO2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)

Germinating Peas, room temperature

  1. 0 min 97099
  2. 3 min 97099
  3. 6 min 97018
  4. 9 min 96851
  5. 12 min 96851
  6. 0 min 2039
  7. 3 min 2152
  8. 6 min 2267
  9. 9 min 2374
  10. 12 min 2433

Non-germinating Peas, room temperature

  1. 0 min 97767
  2. 3 min 97848
  3. 6 min 97929
  4. 9 min 98015
  5. 12 min 98096
  6. 0 min 829
  7. 3 min 820
  8. 6 min 817
  9. 9 min 817
  10. 12 min 808

Germinating Peas, cool temperature

  1. 0 min 99423
  2. 3 min 98760
  3. 6 min 98177
  4. 9 min 97762
  5. 12 min 97676
  6. 0 min 899
  7. 3 min 1071
  8. 6 min 1203
  9. 9 min 1315
  10. 12 min 1478

Leaves

  • O2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)
  • CO2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)

Leaves in Light

  1. 0 min 97894
  2. 3 min 97894
  3. 6 min 97813
  4. 9 min 97727
  5. 12 min 97727
  6. 0 min 961
  7. 3 min 942
  8. 6 min 933
  9. 9 min 920
  10. 12 min 908

Leaves in Dark

  1. 0 min 97311
  2. 3 min 97479
  3. 6 min 97560
  4. 9 min 97560
  5. 12 min 97646
  6. 0 min 1055
  7. 3 min 1061
  8. 6 min 1071
  9. 9 min 1049
  10. 12 min 1049

Insects

  • O2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)
  • CO2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)

Insects

  1. 0 min 99925
  2. 3 min 99677
  3. 6 min 99342
  4. 9 min 99094
  5. 12 min 99094
  6. 0 min 1162
  7. 3 min 1246
  8. 6 min 1309
  9. 9 min 1375
  10. 12 min 1440

The initial prediction for this experiment was supported as the germinated peas had a higher rate of respiration than the non-germinated peas. It was also found that temperature does have an effect on respiration as the cool germinated peas had much lower and slower respiration rates.

Discussion

Due to the fact that the germinating peas had a higher rate of respiration than non-germinated peas, the hypothesis was proven correct. Germinating peas, after 12 minutes, had a respiration rate in both CO2 and O2 that surpassed that of the non-germinating peas. This was supported by the results gathered from the experiment using the Vernier Gas Sensors and the LabQuest technology. A few issues were raised due to the LabQuest software stopping intermitted during the collection of data. This was solved by careful observation of these intermitted stops over the 12-minute collection time so that the data was uninterrupted. This experiment could have been improved if the LabQuest software had no glitches. These issues also could have affected the accuracy of the data by missing the 3-minute increments that were being tested. The results are shown below, in Figure 1, to confirm the hypothesis.

Peas

  • O2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)
  • CO2 Respiration Rate (ppm/s)

Germinating Peas, room temperature

  1. 0 min 97099
  2. 3 min 97099
  3. 6 min 97018
  4. 9 min 96851
  5. 12 min 96851
  6. 0 min 2039
  7. 3 min 2152
  8. 6 min 2267
  9. 9 min 2374
  10. 12 min 2433

Non-germinating Peas, room temperature

  1. 0 min 97767
  2. 3 min 97848
  3. 6 min 97929
  4. 9 min 98015
  5. 12 min 98096
  6. 0 min 829
  7. 3 min 820
  8. 6 min 817
  9. 9 min 817
  10. 12 min 808

Germinating Peas, cool temperature

  1. 0 min 99423
  2. 3 min 98760
  3. 6 min 98177
  4. 9 min 97762
  5. 12 min 97676
  6. 0 min 899
  7. 3 min 1071
  8. 6 min 1203
  9. 9 min 1315
  10. 12 min 1478

Conclusion

This lab showcased the relationship between gas laws, temperature, and the effect of germination on cellular respiration. The levels of CO2 and O2 tested and recorded were able to confirm that germination and temperature do, in fact, have an influence on the respiration rates of peas. Through the experiment, it was found that putting the specimen in different conditions yielded different results in respiration. If the experiment were to follow the pathway respiration typically does, the germinating peas and the cold germinated peas would have consumed the most oxygen because they were undergoing respiration even with varying temperatures. On the contrary, non-germinating peas are dormant and require very little respiration as they are not active. Furthermore, the cold peas displayed a decrease in the reaction rate of respiration due to a decrease in oxygen consumption. Higher temperatures typically do produce faster reaction rates, assuming the temperature is not extremely high or out of the organism’s functioning capacity.

References

  1. Brown, M. H., & Schwartz, R. S. (2009). Connecting photosynthesis and cellular respiration: Preservice teachers conceptions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(7), 791–812. doi: 10.1002/tea.20287
  2. Geoffrey E. Hill, Cellular Respiration: The Nexus of Stress, Condition, and Ornamentation, Integrative and Comparative Biology, Volume 54, Issue 4, October 2014, Pages 645–657, https://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2147/10.1093/icb/icu029
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Why Do Germinating Peas Consume More Oxygen: Research Essay. (2023, April 21). Edubirdie. Retrieved March 4, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/why-do-germinating-peas-consume-more-oxygen-research-essay/
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Why Do Germinating Peas Consume More Oxygen: Research Essay. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/why-do-germinating-peas-consume-more-oxygen-research-essay/> [Accessed 4 Mar. 2024].
Why Do Germinating Peas Consume More Oxygen: Research Essay [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2023 Apr 21 [cited 2024 Mar 4]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/why-do-germinating-peas-consume-more-oxygen-research-essay/
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