In medicine, an abortion is a loss of pregnancy due to premature exit of the products of conception (fetus, fetal membranes & placenta) from the uterus due to any case. An abortion may occur spontaneously (miscarriage) or maybe medically induced. The miscarriage of three or more consecutive pregnancies is termed a habitual abortion or recurrent pregnancy loss.
Abortion, as far as social and moral obligations are concerned, remains to be one of the most contested issues in the world. Here, the arguments are all about either supporting or reject abortion based on some related facts and laws. The statements made by the anti-abortionists are all based on preserving human lives from the point of actually giving full rights and priority to an unborn fetus’ life over that of mothers’. On the other hand, statements from the supporters of abortions are all based on women possessing full control of their bodies and their own basic human rights to the point of prioritizing their lives than that of fetuses.
Some Bhutanese anti-abortionists say “Abortion causes problems and deaths to mothers”, so to prevent it, either make sure to stop abortion completely- through a combination of tough laws, sex educations, family planning, and contraception. However, supporters of abortion say that calling an abortion a “murder” becomes merely a statement that is based on religious beliefs and the choice of aborting lies in the hands of the women. They stated that abortion should be” legalized” as women also have their equal rights of handling their own lives and such action remains to be justified in many cases even though it possesses some aspects of the moral status of the fetus.
For instance, when a woman is raped, it will be a very tough decision to be made where she has to either keep the pregnancy and let the child remind of her trauma or abort the fetus and have the guilt of being a “murderer”. In this point of situation, the supporters believe that abortion would be the only option since they argue that the fetus normally uses the bodies of women. Women possess justifiable grounds for abortion if their lives are endangered and if in any case, they are being raped, and when they have taken precautions to avoid pregnancy.
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However, the argument becomes merely false because some anti-abortionists say that the fetus being the conscious event which is one of the predicted and intended outcomes or the result. The fetus has its full moral status because it has the right to live. So such rights of living cannot be taken away from the fetus as it possesses some moral status.
Dr. Pandup Tshering said that couples usually undergo illegal abortions when they don’t want a child and since such abortions are not allowed in Bhutan, they usually visit places outside for such actions (Dema, 2017). As per Bhutan penal code 2004 of illegal abortion (146) clearly states, “a defendant shall be guilty of the crime of illegal abortion if the defendant unlawfully aborts/induces expulsion of an embryo or fetus or prevents a child from being born alive, except the act is caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the mother or when the pregnancy is the result of rape or when the mother is of unsound mental condition”. With such statements, anti-abortionists strongly oppose the supporters of abortion by stating that abortion is an illegal act.
In opposition to the above statement, supporters of abortion say that the fetus does not possess fully-fledged life yet. Even though it has not been a person yet and doesn’t even resemble to be a people in early stage. So such abortion at this stage can be permissible but according to Haney (2008), those supporters have no sense of life. The fetus is indeed a new life, an authentic, equal human life. Also, a fetus at eight weeks can feel the pain, have its own fingerprints which it would be carrying on into its adulthood. It becomes a true fact that the fetus’ internal organs have become intact and operational. So because of such notions, anti-abortionists seem to reject such actions since it becomes a brutal and inhumane, vicious form of murdering an innocent human being.
Therefore, it becomes evident that the arguments stated by anti-abortionists are powerful full with strong justifications than that of supporters of abortion. It is indeed morally right when stating about some unborn children without even giving them a chance to see the world and have their lives. Abortion therefore by beliefs or by law is just not right. The child itself becomes a result of some feelings and desires which every human must understand and accept what the outcomes or consequences are. If one doesn’t be responsible for the consequences of such an act, then they shouldn’t have the right to be even called a human living being. So the abortion should be prohibited and it should be dealt with seriously with strict laws and regulations.