This paper is an article review analysis with local and international police functions to control transnational organized crime’ articulated by different authors. In this review objective of the each author on the cases, the central idea that was discussed and issue raised and the drawback of the authors and, review of the article will end with the conclusions and recommendations.
The review of the article has four articles reviewed with the author of the article. The first article is on the organization of transnational organized crime policing explained by author Clive Harfield with the objective of demonstrating a decade of developments in the organization of organized crime policing. The second article’s review objectives by the authors Stan Gilmour and Robert France are to describe how local police with the collaboration of the national and international police will be effective well in reducing transnational organized crime which is very harmful to society at large. The third parts of review of article are the Alice Hills article that assesses the possibility of developing transnational policing in the light of UN peacekeeping operations and he offers an explanation of transnational policing limitations depend on the primary of sub-state practice over international standards. The fourth review of the article are transnational policing: The Globalization Thesis, a Typology and a Research Agenda explored by an author Ben Bowling main objective is an article explores the thesis that the idea contemporary policing requires collaboration across international boundaries has become accepted as a fact and transnational policing is most frequently cited as a solution to organized crime. The police role is very crucial to control and prevent transnational organized crime which across the national borders by supporting the sub-state and supranational policing.
Analysis of the Reviews
Clive Harfield’s article is discussed on the organization of transnational organized crime policing. The objectives of his article are to demonstrate a decade of developments in the organization of organized crime policing within the international context and shows that the policing of organized crime is based on certain prerequisites.
He stated that policing is organized and depends on an understanding of what needs to be policed. The awareness of the threat of organized crime is changed, hence, organized crime has various characteristics in terms of nation-wide conspiracy; ethnic grouping; socio-political elites and state-organized crime; professional or white-collar crime; ongoing illicit business enterprises; a global phenomenon; a core threat to democracy; and, increasingly, as having a terrorist connection.
He also explain the functional pre-requisites around which the organization policing organized crime is structured within the international context: domestic statute law; courts with relevant competency; instruments of international co-operation; agencies with appropriate powers and capabilities; preventive capability; upstream interdiction; the capacity to generate, manage, share and apply knowledge; all within an appropriate framework of good governance and legitimacy.
He explained that collaborative and co-ordinated effort is required to translate different and differing national capacities and capabilities into an effective multilateral mechanism against organized crime and so appropriately organize organized crime policing in its international context. His article emphasized on the development of organized crime policing over the past decade and viewed in the widest sense and the question arises, the variation in opinion and premise, and the inherent complexity of multilayered, multi-actor collaboration, to what extent effective or even efficient organization of organized crime policing is possible at all
He also argued on the strengths and limitation of organized crime policing. Policing of organized crime are characterized by flexibility and innovation, with opportunities to achieve successful prosecutions and reduce harm within a transnational context, whereas differences in capacity and capability between jurisdictions; different and indifferent attitudes towards treaty negotiation, ratification and implementation; different attitudes and agenda in relation to mutual legal assistance and international law enforcement co-operation raised as limitation.
He pointed out that the organization of policing organized crime needs prerequisites of domestic statute law, courts with relevant competency, instruments of inter-national co-operation, agencies with appropriate powers and capabilities, preventative capability, upstream interdiction; the capacity to generate, manage, share and apply knowledge; all within an appropriate framework of good governance and legitimacy for policing of organized crimes or transnational criminals.
Stan Gilmour and Robert France discuss the problems associated with a crime management model instituted geographically, and the advantages of different models of policing to counter transnational organized crime. The main objectives of the authors are to describe how local police with the collaboration of the national and international police will be effective well in reducing transnational organized crime which is very harmful to the society at large. They analyzed the different policing approaches to the level of criminality from three organized frameworks; intelligence-led policing, problem-solving policing, and goal-oriented policing.
At the transnational level, the basic premise of the NIM is being replicated in the European Criminal Intelligence Model, seen as an alternative to a pan-European criminal law enforcement agency or centralization of effort through Europol. The NIM process sets out a system for the collection and evaluation of information, taking a much broader view of the information that should be considered than simply intelligence material. He proposed the importance of understanding that caused by the fact that the NIM with a range of policing activity from the local to the national and international level during the decision-making process. The NIM is applied across the police service, and its aim is to provide a holistic business process that can be applied to the policing of crime from neighborhood issues through to national and international criminality.
At the global international level, individual agency, criminal justice policy and foreign policy agenda in relation to transnational organized crime, diffused through the geopolitical prism, limits consensus, constricts collaboration and denies meaningful opportunities for large-scale organization and coordination. He recommended that from an intelligence base and with a problem-solving perspective local officers should be encouraged to coordinate a much richer response to the harms of transnational organized crime within their communities and concludes with a suggestion to look towards an Intelligent Problem Solving solution that prioritizes the grassroots by focusing on threat, harm, and risk within a crime continuum.
Author Alice Hills’ article assess the possibility of developing transnational policing in the light of UN peacekeeping operations and he offers an explanation of transnational policing limitations depend on the primary of sub-state practice over international standards.
He point out that occupational linkage of police forces today’s world is must co-operate to respond effectively to crime and ethic is founded on a ‘politically, economically, culturally and socially incorporate global social order..
The debates presented by the author on the various forms of bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation that are encouraged by intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) such as the EU, UN police (UNPOL)and Interpol, as is the notion of shared professional standards. first he note the tendency of many commentators to idealize the concept of a transnational ethic while disregarding, second, the subjective nature of active policing, and the role of force within it; these issues come to the power in the artificial environment of UN peacekeeping, which the third subdivision uses as a laboratory in which to scrutinize the possibility of transnational policing; Fourth, the relationship between international sub-state standards is demonstrated by reference to Norwegian provision for Nigerian peacekeepers; fifth, he conclude that the chances of developing a transnational police ethic are least.
He noted that UNPOL operation for confirmation of a common ethic is given on the basis of the UN’s codes, declarations and standards on policing. The possibility of developing a genuinely transnational police craft is accordingly slight due to political, to do with power, and sub-state policing realities customarily balance the idealism and universalizing tendencies of profuse analysts and organizations such as the UN.
He conclude that there is no transnational agreement on the levels of force required for effective policing, and each country assumes that its own practices are appropriate, but he put priority of sub-state practice as a limitation. Transnational policing is progressively widespread in response to the promotion of international human-rights legislation, humanitarian intervention strategies and cross-border security operations. He admits that that institutional fragmentation prevents global common interest into practical action and the transnational condition is not conducive to fostering an ethic of good policing but he argues that choosing to foster a constabulary ethic is both desirable and necessary. He focuses on the interests and experiences of international actors, rather than on the performance, effectiveness and conduct of, and popular support for, indigenous police organizations and he concludes that it is difficult to realize a transnational ethic capable of incorporating
UNPOL operations reflect changing expectations of transnational policing, the limits on what it can achieve, and the dominance of pragmatic and technical necessities over ideology. UNPOL encourages the perception that it provides a public good on behalf of the international community. Its strategic mission of UNPOL is to developing institutional police capacity in post-conflict environments, and its role is supporting the reform, restructuring and rebuilding of local police. He generalized that UNPOL’s promotion of transnational standards is undermined by the behavior of many of its officers
Ben Bowling main objective is an article explores the thesis that all features of policing are gradually transforming as the world is becoming more economically, politically, technologically and socially interconnected. It also exploring the scopes of transnational policing based on a socio-spatial typology, the globalization thesis is demarcated in relation to policing in the local, national, regional, international and global spheres. He used descriptive, explanatory and normative research methods to describe the dimensions of transnational policing practices and plan out program.
As the concept of the article, he address that the globalization thesis is described in relation to policing in the local, national, regional, international and global scopes and the idea of collaboration across international boundaries has become accepted. Transnational networks have be-come more extensive, intensive and faster flowing, global forces are having greater local impacts that led to insecurity. The interconnectedness of the world has radically increased through personal computers and mobile telephony creates new opportunities for illegality and facilitates criminal collaborations however it creates new possibilities for ‘horizontal’ communication and collaboration among police officers.
Global policing is emerging within local police forces, national agencies, and regional and other transnational bodies and it is possible to say that it exists as an empirical reality. The development of Interpol is starting point of global policing network that designed to promote mutual assistance between police organizations and it provides secure global communication, provides databases, and offers operational support through a command and coordination center, and training national police forces.
The author concluded that transnational policing in its various forms will continue to expand in the coming decades. The influence of emerging from network or the technology and innovation development and this effect change the communication system with another country. The enormous challenges presented by the shifting nature of policing to be based on a solid normative and legal framework and an evidence base to guide practice, a major programmed of research, advanced scholarship, empirical researchers to follow funding to describe and explain the new transnational policing practices, the cooperation of the police and other security sector agencies to facilitate access, promote the research effort and engage constructively in constitutes good policing
Transnational policing is providing security across national borders by peacekeeping/peace enforcement. Because of growing threat posed by new forms of international organized crime, global terrorism, increasing human trafficking, drug trafficking and human smuggling, and many countries began to link domestic policing to fight it. Policing of those crimes needs coordination or collaboration of multination because of its harm to every society and the country socially, economically and politically. Transnational organized crime means any crime against the given national domestic criminal law, perpetrated across national boundaries. The main objectives of these reviews are to analyze how transnational policing functioning to control local and international organized crime.. There is a weakness with the issue raised with the authors. On the article review of the possibility of transnational policing by Alice Hills is only based on UN peacekeeping standards with no attention to other countries. Effective policing under the legislation of UN is not incorporating other countries’ experiences only by taking the Nigeria and Norway trend in UN. As it is discussed by author Stan Gilmour and Robert France in local policing and transnational organized crime, policing at a local level had more often relied on a reactive approach to its work that that means waiting for an incident to occur, and then responding it but not concerned with a proactive approach to its work and preventing crime before it happens to save the society from the harm by criminals. In addition, he discusses that in relation to local policing transnational organized crime local policing depends on only three models of policing: intelligence-led policing, problem-oriented policing and goal-oriented policing without considering other models of policing.
To sum up, the collaboration of the local and international police will be effective well in reducing transnational organized crime which is very harmful to society at large since one country and agency alone doesn’t prevent its harmful and risks from the community and country without group effort and co-ordination of multilateral groups and agencies of criminal justice components. The reduction of transnational organized crime; effective police force, having good police ethic, the commitment of the local and supranational state creation of strong national security policing with the collaboration of other components of the criminal justice system as well as other voluntary agencies have a vital role as well as the solution to diminish the commission of an organized crime which across the existing borders.