‘Safety and security don’t just happen: they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children—the most vulnerable citizens in any society—a life free from violence and fear. In order to ensure this, we must become tireless in our efforts not only to attain peace, justice and prosperity for countries, but also for communities and members of the same family. We must address the roots of violence’ Nelson Mandela
The word “domestic abuse” also called domestic violence. Domestic abuse refer to a number of difference, and convergence behaviour that arises within an intimate our family type relationship. Domestic ferocity arises in different types of relationship, containing married couples, couples that live together, same sex partners, and teen dating relationships.
Since, 30 years domestic abuse first began to arise as a major problem. In the beginning concentration on women protection, and child protection. With the passage of time this attention has extended to comprise domestic ferocity on children, women, and elder people. They are abused in all zones containing social services, legal, housing, and recently health services.
There are some different kinds of domestic abuse, sexual assault, physical violence, emotional, and economic abuse, and also include force marriages. While a vast expanse has been ready for the security of women and children in our society. There are anxious about several traits of interpersonal abuse that have effect on basic human right to live a life free of abuse and violence. These violence has a very risky consequence on our community and in our generations . Domestic violence is one of the most unspeakable types of violence suffered women in our community. Females are frequently affected by domestic violence as associated to men. Anyone can be embellished by domestic violence.
Definitions of domestic violence
The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) defines. Violence against women as ‘any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.’
Intimate partner violence is common term now a days. violence may be a type of emotional abuse, psychological, and economic through physical and sexual violence. Women are more likely to victims as compared to men. It is also identify such kinds of violence come transversely cultural and socioeconomic assemblies. Domestic abuse disturbs individuals irrespective of socioeconomic status , gender, ethnicity, religious association and Sexuality . It is important for the nurse to have knowledge of the policies used by abusers, and to offer a harmless place for victims to take treatment. Types of abuses: Abusive actions does not means that somebody is in anger and uncontrolled.it means that abuser types a choice to apply control and influence his or her partner.
Abusive behaviour include physical, emotional, sexual, social and financial abuse. Physical Abuse: physical abuse often arises with less ferocious assaults such as pushing. With passage of time, it turn into violent. Abusers often bull’s eye on areas of the body that are mostly enclosed with clothing ,because injuries are less visible to others. Physical abuse Acts include;
- Throwing object .
- Pushing Shaking.
Emotional abuse: Emotional abuse used by those, who want to make their partner afraid. They want to influence over the victim. Emotional abuse include:
- Blaming the target for all problems
- Threatening physical violence
- Threaten to take the kids away from the victim
- Yelling at the target
Sexual abuse is one of the major problem of our society. It is slightest debated but furthermost common forms of domestic violence. Sexual abuse contains:
- Threaten women as sex object
- Criticizing on the sexuality of target
- Demanding masculinity
- Sex later beating
- Flaunting affairs
- Unwanted touch
Its aim is to isolate the victim from others in society. Abuser has more control over victim as the victim is connected with fewer people.
Examples of social abuse include:
- Insisting that the couple spend all time together
- Monitoring the victims mail or phone calls
- Forbidding the victim from seeing friends and family
- Telling others the victim is crazy or abusive
Abusers want to establish financial control over victims. There are fewer resources for escape, if victims are financially dependent on abusers. Financial Abuse includes:
- Making all financial decisions for the household;
- Keeping financial secrets
- Controlling the victims access to cash
- Refusing to let the victim work
- Forcing the victim to turn over income to the abuser
It occurs in all socio-economic groups, all religious, all ethnic groups and within heterosexual, lesbian and gay relationship to people of all ages and physical abilities. Is perpetrated against women in 95% of cases. Something that has happened to people you know, whether your sister, mother, neighbor, friend, your co-worker or even yourself. (Flury, Nyberg, & Riecher-Rossler, 2010).
A Role For Nurses
The impact of domestic violence on health care system is great. For this reason, health care professionals are uniquely positioned and can play an important role in identifying violence. Health care professional can identify victims, offering support and referring patients to community agencies. Health care professionals are often’ the first line response, for many people who experience violence, it is very important to have education about polices and protocols so that they can identify and assist the victim.
Nurses are larger group of health care provider who play vital role in health care promotion and improve health status of communities. .As a group of health workers nurses have been reluctant to consider domestic violence as a health Issue. Unfortunately, nurses have to face many job related barriers and patient related barriers that may hinder their ability to assist victims effectively.
Despite this, nurses have vital role to play in hospital and community settings to assist individual, who are victims of domestic situation. Abused women and children regularly seek health services because evidence shows great effect of abuse have a profound impact on women, and childrens health. Women and children suffer health consequences as a result of domestic violence. Nurses play significant role in working towards prevention and early intervention of domestic violence.
It is important for nurses to be aware of tactics used by abusers and to provide safe and supportive place for victims. The goal of a nurse should always be to increase safety.it is ethical responsibility of a nurse to protect each patient’s confidentiality,to take patient’s experiences seriously, and to respect each patient’s autonomy. It is crucial for nurses that they are prepared to educate themselves,and confront their fears, values, and beliefs while working.
Domestic violence is a major issue around the world and many nonprofit organizations work to provide support to victims. According to United Nation report,it was compiled from a number of different studies conducted in at least 71 countries found domestic violence against women to be most prevalent in Ethopia.
According to WHO Global estimates indicates that 1 in 3(35%) of women worldwide have experienced either physical or sexual intimate partner violence or non partner sexual violence in their lifetime.
Health impact of violence
Intimate partner violence has great impacts survivors in every aspect of their lives, their physical health, emotional health, employment, relationship with family, and friends potential use or abuse of substances.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that female victims have high prevalence of health problems In a study it was found that 69.7% victims who reported at least one health problem. Those who have been abused are more vulnerable to disease. Abused women experience more health problems than non-abused women.
Strategies And Skills For Nurses
Nurses can play a vital role in working towards the relation of a violence free community, but they must first become informed. They must than insist the organization in which they work to accept this responsibility and work together to create environment that support people experiencing domestic violence. Women who have been subjected to violence tend not to ask professionals directly for help. In a recent women’s protection survey, 79% of women who had experienced physical violence and 81.25% who had experienced sexual abuse had not sought any professional help.
The variety of obstacles to disclosing domestic violence include:
- Safety fear.
- Safety of children or other family.
- Disbelief or Denial.
- Emotional attachment.
- Partner love.
- Commitment to relationship.
- Faith the behaviour would change.
- Indignity and embarrassment.
- Worried about the children
- Stress and Depression.
How to Respond
Nurses play primary role in identifying intimte partner violence and facilitating referrals through routine inquiry, ongoing dialogue, and establishing patient trust. Some responses may be helpful for successful communication in these circumstances include:
- Listening: Being listened to victims make them empowered
- Communicating belief: Nurses aim is to reduce fear of individuals.
- Establish therapeutic relationship: Between nurse and patient
Validating decision to Disclose ‘It must have been difficult for you to talk about this,’ ‘I am glad you were able to tell me about this today;
Emphasizing the unacceptability of violence: “You do not deserve to be treated this way.”
Prevention strategies must protect the wellbeing of the victim and those who are at risk.
Prevention strategies requires a long term commitment to individuals.
- We can prevent violence by providing the safe environment and stable relationships between children and their parents and care givers.
- Different programme should be held to strengthen our relationships between children and their parents and their care givers.
- We can reduce aggressive and violent behavior by conducting parents and child programmes.
- We can minimize the Maltreatment of the children and also in the family through parent and child programme.
- Public education campaigns on a largest scale should be conducted at government and non governmental organizational levels.
- Comprehensive preventive education programmes offered to children and adolescents in school system.
- Abused individuals may be at risk of repeating the abuse in their own families,so we shouldprovide protection in their families.
Education may be helpful to stop the domestic violence. Community nurse should raise public awareness among individuals.
Public education campaigns can prevent domestic violence directly and indirectly. Public attitudes towards the problems should be changed by providing awareness.
The goal of the Domestic Violence and the Role of Health Care Provider seminar is to equip nurses with knowledge and resources necessary to provide services to abused women and to allow them to become more comfortable. During the training sessions, nurses are educated about the dynamics of abusive relationships, which are crucial in addressing personal barriers they may experience when treating victims.
Any structured programme of training, including experimental training workshops and educational programmes and sessions aimed at improving health care providers,ability to identify and respond to violence against women.
Domestic violence is one of the most horrendious kinds of abuse suffered women in our society. females are mostly affected by domestic violence as compared to men. Anyone can be affected by domestic violence. Nurses have to face many challenges regarding domestic violence that society encounters.
Education should also address personal barriers such as negative stereotypes, institutional barriers such as lack of support and resources ,and professional barriers such as lack of education ,training and tools.
It is the responsibility of health care provider to provide safety and support to victims. In the future, we hope to expand our abilities to offer education credit to social workers and share training in a variety of venues.
Domestic violence and the role of health care provider will educate and equip the nurses to identify victims, and to refer victims to services and resources that could potentially save their lives.
- Flury, M., Nyberg, E., & Riecher-Rossler, A. (2010). Domestic violence against women: Definitions, epidemiology, risk factors and consequences. Swiss Med Wkly, 140, w13099. doi:10.4414/smw.2010.13099.
- Retrived From http;//WWW.the Oregon Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence.
- Hewins, E., DiBella, B. & Mawla, J. (2013). Domestic Violence and the Role of the Healthcare Provider: The Importance of Teaching Assessment and Intervention Strategies. Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and the Center on Violence Against Women & Children at the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.