In general, when it comes to the biological aspect of anxiety there is still more to learn and examine. For example, there should be more studies that focus on the environment and other risk factors. Even though some risk factors indicate one specific sex there should be more for both sexes. Basic and clinical studies are also needed to review the role of testosterone during fear extinction.
The research about the adult female and male Long-Evans rats showed how imported the gondola hormones are for the females (Zimmerberg and Farley, 1992). The research was well performed with many important factors that could have an effect on anxiety. The research had two experiments with two different results. The first experiment focused on natural behavior without any kind of treatment. The second experiment included two treatments that showed a different result than the first one. The gonadal hormones for female rats showed to have a big effect on their behavior, compared to the male rats. Rats’ sex hormones can be compared and analyzed with human sex hormones. But the study does not talk about the relationship between these two. In future studies, this study can be used to compare and draw parallels between humans' sex hormones and rats.
One of the studies that were included in the result shows that women had more severe physical symptoms in panic disorder compared to men ( Sheik & Klein, 2002). But the study does not explain the reason behind the outcome. The study also had participants who either were diagnosed with a Panic disorder or those who only had a panic attack but did not meet the criteria for PD. This makes it difficult to draw a conclusion if panic disorder differs between the two sexes.
In another study included in the results, the authors believe that PTSD symptoms for women are more emotional rather than physical as it is for the male gender (Murphy & Ghazali, 2018). This study focused mainly on adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 who had just gone through a natural disaster. The result clearly showed the relationship between PTSD symptoms and sex differences, as the female gender had more symptoms such as guilt, bad memory, negative emotional state while the male gender had aggression, self-destructive behavior, and Physiological cue reactivity.
In another study, the authors show that the symptoms of PTSD are different between males and females (Hu & Zheng, 2017). The symptoms that characterize the female gender were lack of concentration, a sense of guilt, and flashbacks. The study also mentions the background factors that can cause different symptoms, for example, traumatic events. The authors indicate that females and males often experience different types of trauma. Males experience traumatic events such as accidents, natural disasters, and military combat, whereas woman tends to experience more incidents of sexual abuse and sexual assault. This may be one of the reasons why the symptoms between them look different.