Bullying has always existed. In the late 1970s, when studying suicidal trends among adolescents, researchers found that most of these young people had suffered some kind of threat, and therefore, bullying was evil to fight. The popularity of the phenomenon grew with the influence of electronic media such as the Internet and television reports, as the pejorative nicknames and offensive games were taking on greater proportions.
School bullying is a situation that is characterized by intentional, verbal, virtual, or physical aggression, made repeatedly by one or more students against one or more colleagues. Physical or moral aggression must have four characteristics: the author’s intention to hurt the target, the repetition of the aggression, the presence of a spectator audience, and the target’s agreement regarding the offense. When the target overcomes the reason for the aggression, he reacts or ignores, demotivating the author’s action.
What leads the bullying author to do it is to want to be more popular, to feel powerful, and to get a good image of himself. He is a person who has not learned to turn his anger into dialogue and for whom the other’s suffering is no reason for him to stop acting. The author is not just like that at school. Usually, he has a family relationship in which everything is resolved by verbal or physical violence, and he reproduces this in the school environment.
The viewer is a key character in bullying. The typical spectator is a witness to the facts, as he does not go out in defense of the victim or join the authors. This passive attitude can occur due to fear of being attacked or lack of initiative to take sides. The viewer closes himself off from relationships, excludes himself, because he thinks he may also suffer in the future.
The target is usually a teenager with low self-esteem and withdrawn both at school and at home. Because of these characteristics, it is difficult for this young man to be able to react. That is where the question of repetition in bullying comes in, because if the student seeks help, the tendency is for the provocation to cease. In addition to psychological traits, the targets of this type of violence tend to have physical peculiarities. The attacks can also address cultural, ethnic, and religious aspects. It can also occur with a novice or a beautiful girl, who ends up being chased by colleagues.
The student who suffers bullying, especially when he does not ask for help, faces fear and shame of going to school. He/she may want to drop out of school, do not feel good to join the group, and have a low income. Those who manage to react can alternate moments of anxiety and aggression. In some extreme cases, bullying affects the young person’s emotional state in such a way that he chooses tragic solutions, such as suicide.
Thus, school bullying, as a manifestation of intentional aggression of one or more students against others, is a serious mass problem of modern society and can have extremely negative, long-term consequences. School bullying needs due attention from the society and the adoption of measures to combat it.