Three-Generation Family History

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After analyzing the pedigree, it is evident that people in this family have a high chance of developing metabolic syndrome, because obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and systemic hypertension are all prevalent in the family. Also, many people in the family have presbyopia, which is normal, as it is a progressive, age-related condition; However, 3.2 is the only person in the family with myopia, which is unusual since both the parents do not have myopia. Moreover, both offspring of 2.3 developed childhood asthma, which is strange as asthma does not run in the family, and there are no allergies in the family. Lastly, 1.1 and 3.2 both developed cholelithiasis, which is not unusual as hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and being Mexican American are all risk factors for the condition. With that said, individual 1.2 has been chosen as the proband because he is susceptible to many conditions.

Metabolic syndrome is a combination of maladies that increase the risk of heart disease. The maladies include obesity, hypercholesterolemia, systemic hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Several factors can act together to cause metabolic syndrome. Some factors include consuming too many calories and saturated fat, insufficient physical activity, insulin resistance, and a family history of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Staff, 2017). Given that individual 1.2 has a family history of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome and is obese, there is a high probability that 3.2 will develop metabolic syndrome, if not already if he does not change his ways of living. Some prevention tools for this individual would be a better diet, increased physical activity, and maintaining a better weight.

Given that 3.2 is the only person in the family with myopia, it is essential to know how this happened. To begin myopia is a type of refractive error; There are three types of refractive errors, myopia (nearsightedness), presbyopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. Refractive errors and presbyopia are the two primary causes of blurred vision. The cause of myopia is unknown; however, there are two main risk factors that researchers who study nearsightedness have identified. The first is a genetic predisposition; if one or both parents are nearsighted, there is an increased chance their children will be nearsighted. The second is driven by nurture, principally lifestyle changes resulting from a combination of decreased time outdoors and increased near work activities such as reading or staring at the screens of computers, tablets, and smartphones (Holden et al., 2016).

Since the parents of 3.2 do not have myopia, there is a high probability that 3.2 developed myopia from an extended amount of near work activities. Myopia can be treated in many different ways; Including eyeglasses, contact lenses, CRT, and laser procedures. An interesting fact about myopia is that it is projected that by 2050 50% of the world's population will be myopic (Holden et al., 2016)

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In childhood asthma, the lungs plus airways turn easily inflamed when presented to particular triggers, such as breathing pollen or getting a cold or other respiratory viruses. Childhood asthma is not a different disease from asthma in adults, but children face unique challenges. Childhood asthma cannot be cured, and symptoms continue until adulthood, but with the right treatment, the child can hold symptoms under power and stop harm to growing lungs. Some factors that are thought to be involved with childhood asthma include: inherited tendency to develop allergies, parents with asthma, airway infections, and exposure to environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke or air pollution. Given that three of the four supposed causes do not apply to 3.2 or 3.1, environmental factors are the most probable cause of asthma in the offspring of 2.3.

Cholelithiasis means the occupation of one or more gallstones in the gallbladder. Two types of gallstones can form in the gallbladder, cholesterol gallstones, which are the more common type and pigment gallstones. The suspected causes of cholelithiasis are excess cholesterol in bile (cholesterol gallstones), excess bilirubin in bile (pigment gallstones), and excess bile in the gallbladder, due to the gallbladder not emptying correctly.

Since 1.1 had hypercholesterolemia, there is a high chance that the excess cholesterol is what caused the formation of gallstones; However, 3.2 did not have hypercholesterolemia, the suspected cause for 3.2 would be being obese and Mexican American. These are the suspected causes because the risk factors for gallstone formation include: being obese, Mexican American, having a high-fat diet, high-cholesterol diet, and a low-fiber diet. Apart from these risk factors, research has proven a marked increase in the incidence of gallstone and cholecystectomy in children and adolescents worldwide. The main reason for the increased incidence appears to be early-onset overweight and obesity (Donnelly, 2019). Treatments for this condition include surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) and medications to dissolve gallstones. Prevention tools for cholelithiasis include not skipping meals, skipping meals or fasting can increase the risk of gallstones; lose weight slowly, rapid weight loss can increase the risk of gallstones; eat more high-fiber foods, such as fruits vegetables, and whole grains, and maintaining a healthy weight.

A person needs to know about the different learning resources that the internet provides. These resources will help in their understanding of different conditions. One resource is https://www.mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic is a public-service organization bound to clinical practice, teaching, and research. It will provide information on symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatments for a condition. Mayo clinic is a perfect resource for someone that is looking for an overview of a condition. For example, if 3.2 wanted to get a generalization of metabolic syndrome, this would be the website. Another resource is https://medlineplus.gov. MedlinePlus is an online wellness knowledge source for patients and their relatives. This resource is a little more in-depth on conditions, it not only gives the basics of a condition, but it provides the person with information on treatments, therapies, statistics, journal articles, and videos on the condition in question. The last resource is https://familydoctor.org. This website has a lot in common with the two other websites, but what separates it from the other two is that it has a symptom checker. This feature would be useful for discovering what condition a person may have based on symptoms. The checker gives a list of symptoms and asks questions using their physician-reviewed symptom checker to find a possible diagnosis for the health issue.

The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) performs an essential part in maintaining the nation healthy. They achieve this by establishing national wellness aims, objectives, supporting programs, services, and education activities that enhance the well-being of all Americans. They manage three independent websites: https://health.gov, home of the ODPHP, and provides health information; https://healthfinder.gov, provides evidence-based health guidance; https://www.healthypeople.gov, provides tools and resources for professionals about Healthy People 2020 health objectives. The goals of Healthy People 2020 genomics is to improve health and prevent harm through valid and useful genomic tools in clinical and public health practices.

References

  1. Donnelly, S. (2019). Gallstone Disease and Cholecystectomy in Children and Adolescents With Obesity. Journal of Pediatric Surgical Nursing, 8(3), 55–57. doi: 10.1097/jps.0000000000000212
  2. Holden, B. A., Fricke, T. R., Wilson, D. A., Jong, M., Naidoo, K. S., Sankaridurg, P., … Resnikoff, S. (2016). Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology, 123(5), 1036–1042. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006
  3. Staff, F. E. (2017, December 12). Metabolic Syndrome. Retrieved from https://familydoctor.org/condition/metabolic-syndrome/?adfree=true.
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Three-Generation Family History. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved April 15, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/three-generation-family-history/
“Three-Generation Family History.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/three-generation-family-history/
Three-Generation Family History. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/three-generation-family-history/> [Accessed 15 Apr. 2024].
Three-Generation Family History [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2024 Apr 15]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/three-generation-family-history/
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