Review of Literature
The use of time can be vary depending on the tasks and responsibilities performed (Alay & Kocak, 2013). Moreover, the competitive environment nowadays urged the individuals, particularly students to manage time effectively to achieve desirable outcomes.
Time symbolizes perhaps the most important resource of life. Time involves multiple disciplines and is the most precious resource of mankind without which every existence is questionable. Time is one of the most precious asset available to everybody in their life( Classes.et.al, 2007). The increasing pace of life occasioned by such factors as growing competition in all spheres is creating increased time pressure on mankind (Ojokuku R.M. & Ubasankehinde, 2011). This is often expressed by doing things faster, contracting time expenditure and compressing action. The ability to take control of time and to make the most of every moment on and off the job is the key to being successful and surviving in today’s world of work (Ramsey, 2014). Thus, the time and timing issues has become critical factor for employees and professional and one of the best ways to use limited and valuable time is conscious and permanent application of time management. This section will shed light on the concepts, importance and applications of time management, acad3emic performance and the relationship between the two.
Gerald (2016) has define time management as the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effectiveness in both work and productivity. It is also perceived as set of principles, practices, skills, tools and systems that should work together to achieve and improve the quality of life. Similarly, Allen (2001), defined time management as practices individuals follow to make better use of their time.
Moreover, Chales (1987) cited in Frank (1994), who is one of the foremost influences in the field of time management, defines time as the occurrence of events one after another and defines management as the act of controlling. He claims that, time management becomes the act of controlling events. The term time management is actually misleading. Strictly speaking, time cannot be managed, because it is an accessible factor. Only the way a person deals with time can be influenced. In this regard, time management is the management of our own activities to make sure that they are accomplished within the available or allocated time, which an unmanageable continuous resource. Thus, it would be more appropriate to speak about self-management with regards to the performance of multiple tasks within a certain time period.
Macan (1994) stated that time management training programs lead to three types of time management behaviors: (1) setting goals and priorities; (2) mechanics of time management; and (3) preference for organization. She hypothesized that these behaviors would result in perceived control of time, or the feeling of having control over one’s time. Three replication concepts (Adams and Jex, 1999; Davis, 2000; Jex and Elacqua, 1999) provided only partial support to Macan’s (1994) model. Jex and Elacqua (1999) asserted that perceived control of time partially mediated the relations between goal setting and prioritizing, and preference for organization on one hand, and strain on the other hand. Setting goals and priorities and preference for organization were positively related to perceived control, whereas mechanics of time management were negatively related to perceived control of time.
In general sense, Claessens et. al (2014) have defined time management as types of behavior that differentiate people who do things on time, stick to deadline and spend little time on their activities from those who are often late, pass deadline, spend much time on their activities and waste time on unimportant matters. Time management is defined as one process by which you can accomplish the tasks and goals which will enable you to be effective in your job and career.
Time Management Style and Academic Performance
According to Brigitte, et. al. (200%), time management plays a significant role in improving students’ performance and achievements. They added that, every student should possess time management to effectively organize activities, set goals, and prioritize those activities that requires immediate attention and others. It is also through time management that the students’ ability to make decisions can be enhanced thereby using time more effectively. While there is no universally accepted way to manage time, it is still important for individuals like students to value time management and apply it indifferent contexts. In addition, being good at planning and prioritizing such as scheduling time and working to deadlines is also positively correlated with perceived effectiveness and work related morale.
In the book Practicing College Learning Strategies, Seventh Edition, Carolyn H. Hopper writes, the cardinal rule of time management is to always carry pocket work something that you can do easily while waiting. If students are prepared, any time can become study time.
In addition, the concept of time management is generally defined in terms of clusters of behavior that are deemed to facilitate productively and alleviates stress (Schouwenburg, 1993). Effective time management strategies increase academic performance (Campbell and Stevenson, 1992) and frequently suggested by academic assistance personnel as aids to enhance achievement for college students. Productive study methods are characterized by time management and strategic studying (Entwistle and Ramsden, 1993). Time management was conceptualized in terms of setting goals and priorities in the use of time.
There are various studies that link time management to students’ academic performance. For instance, proper time management positively correlates to better academic performance (Sevari and Kandy, 2016). There are several factors that can be considered to demonstrate time management. The study of Nashrullah and Khan (2015) identified time management variables to include planning, time attitude as independent variables linking to the students’ academic performance. Similarly, another study also posits the time management variables to include independent variables such as prioritization, procrastination, socialization and students’ academic performance (Adebayo, 2015). Specifically, the said study claimed that there is positive relationship between time management factors such as prioritization, procrastination, and socialization and students’ academic performance.
Karim, et. al, (2015) also links time to management factors to include students attitude and behavior on time management. King (2014) had also emphasized the different external forces that challenges time management and these can be compromised of challenge to one’s ability or expertise, which imposes an unwelcome demand on time, abilities and emotional reserves.
On the other hand, performance is usually measured on the students General Weighted Average (GWA). The latest study conducted by Jalagat (2016) strongly suggests the use of GWA as a measure to student academic performance which also agrees with several studies(Adebayo, 2015; Kaushar, 2013). This study is primarily anchored on Adebayo’s utilization of time management variables: prioritization, procrastination and socialization as independent variables to students’ academic performance.
Some major prior studies on time management among postgraduate students present varied perspective and findings (Repak, 20107) reviewed 32 empirical studies on time management conducted between 1982 and 2004 in order to provide an overview of the current state of the art in time management research. The review reveals that time management behavior relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction and health, while it is negative to stress. However, the relationship with work and academic performance is not clear.
Igdem (2010) investigated the relationship of time management to academic performance of master level students. Employing survey research design, his findings show that there is a significant positive relationship between time management and academic performance of master level students. He concluded that the competitive conditions in business life have forced people and business to do so many things simultaneously.
In a related study, Davis (2000) examined the effect of time management on work and academic settings. Using survey research design, his results suggest a positive relationship between time management and work academic settings and increased performance. A number of experts (Wright, 2002, Ancona, Goodman, Lawrence & Tushtman, 2001) assessed the need to incorporate time in theoretical models and research designs in organizations. Applying survey method, their findings indicate that time management facilities improvement in effort.
In the Philippines, some similar studies on Time Management and academic performance were already conducted. For instance, the recent study of Balatbat and Dahilig (2016) on Student Perceptions on factors Affecting Academic Performance in a Tertiary Institution in Manila, Philippines wherein Time Management is used as one variable that affect academic performance. Findings show that there is a significant relationship between time management and the academic performance of the respondents.
Conversely, Marpa (2008) stated on his study about the Correlation among Time Management, Study Habits and Academic Achievement of the Math Major Students in the Philippine Normal University that the variables mentioned are related with each other. However, he also indicates that there is no significant correlation between math major students’ time management and academic achievement in Mathematics. This means that no matter how you manage your time if you do not pay attention to your studies then academic achievement is at stake.
This arguing concepts prodded the researcher to explore the relationship that lie, if there is, between time management and academic performance of college of education students of Eastern Samar State University Can-Avid Campus.