Bullying are often defined as repeated, unwanted exposure to negative actions by one or more individuals where there's a transparent power differential between the bully and the victim (Biernbaum & Lotyczewski, 2015).
Bullying have three different types: direct, indirect, and cyberbullying.
Direct bullying are often both verbal and physical bullying. Verbal bullying is shown as styles of spoken words or written comments that may cause emotional damage to the targeted student. Physical bullying involves physically harming a student or their possessions. An example of direct bullying is using rude and unpleasant words for calling a student.
Indirect bullying is principally verbal and is experienced frequently in schools. An example of such behavior is when one students aims to spread false information about another one with the intent to cause humiliation.
Cyberbullying is when students use email or social media platforms like Facebook to put in writing damaging content.
Bullying occurs largely at a faculty and is said to students’ academic achievements and their bonding and interest for attending school. School bullying is additionally related to numerous physical, and psychological problems. (Kuan & Clifford, 2012)
Based on OECD (2017) being bullied can negatively affect academic achievement because the emotional, behavioral and psychological consequences of victimization influence students’ capacity to target academic tasks.
Bullying in class can effect students’ academic achievements, leading to low grades and efforts. This can be because victims tend to be absent more often, spend less time and energy on their school work and don't concentrate in school.
The school develops an environment of fear and disrespect with students having difficulty in learning, feeling insecure, disliking school and perceiving teachers and staff as having little control and not caring about them. (Kuan & Clifford, 2012)
The psychological effects of bullying include depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, self-harming behavior (especially for girls), alcohol and drug use and dependence, aggression, and involvement in violence or crime (especially for boys). While bullying can lead to mental health problems for any child, those who already have mental health difficulties are even more likely to be bullied and to experience its negative effects.
Victims of bullying have a higher risk of depression and anxiety. People who are bullied have increased suicidal thoughts that may persist into adulthood. Studies have shown that between 15 and 25 children every year in the United Kingdom commit suicide because they are being bullied.
Bullies tend to have a higher risk of abusing drugs as adults and are likely to have criminal conviction. (Kuan & Clifford, 2012)
The physical effects of bullying may be obvious and immediate, like being injured from a physical attack. However, the continued stress and trauma of being bullied may also result in physical problems over time.
A child who is bullied could develop sleep disorders like difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep - stomachaches, headaches, heart palpitations, dizziness, bedwetting, and chronic pain and somatization (i.e., a syndrome of distressful, physical symptoms that can't be explained by a medical cause).
Being bullied also increases cortisol levels – a stress hormone – within the body, which generally happens after a stressful event. Stress from bullying can impact the system and hormones. Imaging studies show that brain activity and functioning may be laid low with bullying, which can help explain the behavior of youngsters who are bullied. Bullying not only effect the victim but also students that are observers of it and the classroom climate as a whole.
According to the article: “How Bullying Affects Children”, bullying creates a feeling of fear and insecurity from being the next victims as school will be considered an unsafe place were teachers are unable to control such episodes.
Also they feel guilty for not being able to help because victims are unable to communicate and socialize and are socially isolated.
When bullying continues and a school does not take action, the entire school climate can be affected where the school develops an environment of fear and disrespect and students have difficulty learning and dislike school.
When it comes to managing and preventing bullying, teachers play an important role.
Teachers are in an influential position as educators and agents of socialization, helping to promote healthy relationships among students and to prevent negative interactions. Here are some techniques that teachers can use that enhance positive classroom management.
Schools can refer to the anti-bullying programs that use guidance lessons, such as drama (as acting out scenarios), watching videos, and reading books as a methods for addressing bullying in the class. The basic role of such exercises can be seen as sharpening to the issue of bullying.
Dramatization and conversations about bullying can give kids the language to recognize and discuss the experience of harassing. Educators of young students may carry on bullying situations utilizing manikins to assume the parts of casualty and menace. As youngsters develop into youthfulness, instructors can ask students to create contents that portray bullying and use manikins to showcase the situations.
Reading books are additionally a supportive mechanism for teachers to acquaint attention to bulling behaviors. Student’s books that address this misbehavior, as Nobody Knew What to Do: A Story about Bullying can assist students with understanding that bullying is a typical issue by underlining the need to look for help from grown-ups.
Videos and DVDs on bullying are likewise accessible, for example, Bullies Are a Pain in the Brain in which the fundamental character attempts to create answers for make a domineering jerk disregard him. Others can model solution strategies for students, such as banding together and refusing to tolerate the behavior, as well as the implementing a whole school anti-bullying program. Teachers can use these materials and experiences as a catalyst for discussions about bullying in their classrooms.