With one in 10 jobs on the planet reliant on tourism, and an equivalent worth of 10 percent of global GDP is contributed by tourism industry. Tourism is a very important industry for people life and country economics. There are some advantages and disadvantages for two types of tourism: conventional tourism and ecotourism.
There are some advantages of conventional tourism, which gives an opportunity to develop local economics and give an employment for local people. “The income generated can make up a proportion of both private, local, and national incomes”, - researched by Paul Goodman who reported in Soapboxie. Tourism contributes a lot to Thailand. The revenue from tourism is 17.7% of GDP (‘Tourism in Thailand’ from Wikipedia), which is much higher than global standard. More and more tourist from global in Thailand which resulted expanding in hotel industry and retail industry. “It provides jobs, hotels, bars, transport, activities, shops, and restaurants all need staffing”. Hongkong is another example for the decrease of unemployment rate due to the impact of Covid-19. The huge number of tourists diving caused lots of people lost their jobs. CISION reported (on Jan 15, 2021) the total number of visitors in year of 2020 was 93.6% drop comparing to 2019.
Unfortunately, conventional tourism can also bring some problems. “Tourism can often cause environmental damage with risks like erosion, pollution, the loss of natural habitats, and forest fires”, - Paul Goodman said. “Tourists often lack respect for local traditions and culture, refuse to follow local dress standards, get drunk in public, or behave rudely of inappropriately towards locals”. With the developing of tourism in Tibet for recent years, tourism pollution turns much serious than before. The tourism garbage brings big problem in some tourism attractions. One report from China Daily on Mar 9, 2018 showed the importance of action to protect Tibet’s environment. Some measures are taken by China government to limit the number of tourists. Lots of visitors flocked in Tibet from worldwide, national and religion’s difference may result conflict between visitors and local people, the inappropriate behavior may conflict with local manner and damage local culture.
Opposite of the conventional tourism, the ecotourism is more and more been considered. Ecotourism is conducted with strong advantages in environmental protection and sustainable tourism economics. “It means responsible travel to natural areas, conserving the environment, and improving the well-being of the local people” (Ecotourism in Wikipedia). Ecotourism in New Zealand is a very good example. There are many nature-related activities such as hiking, surfing, bird watching and reef diving are less harmful on environment. No big structures are permitted to be built in holiday parks and famous attractions. “While ecotourism in New Zealand caters to the travelers, it is also of great importance to ensure that our environment remains in good sustainable condition”, - mentioned in New Zealand tourism guide. Sustainability is very important in tourism, it can conserve and improve the environment, it also can encourage people to be more mindful of saving resources and decreasing pollution, especially improve people’s natural resource management. Noah Clayton mentioned in World trips Blog on April 19,2017, “Ecotourism suggests adapting a conscientious mindset to extract natural resources in the most efficient and sustainable way possible”.
However, there are some disadvantages in ecotourism. The risks of degrading of ecosystem caused by regularly disrupting by tourists and disturbing local people’s life come out. Tourist organization gets more focus on the marketing to have more financial income. People willing to have more convenience. Those lead to some activities which are not good for the environment and local culture. “Human presence can scare off prey and disrupt hunting patterns for predators, an increased number of travelers can lead to soil erosion and habitat loss, and higher demand of resources like food and water for travelers creates a stress on the environment”, - Noah Clayton said. For the convenient accommodations, sometimes local groups of people are displaced from their homes in order to make way for hotels, ecotourism expansions, and natural resource excavations. For example, in East Africa about 70% of all national parks and game reserves are occupying land that was illegally taken away from a group of people.
Thus, conventional tourism plays a very important role in people’s life and country economics. Ecotourism gives another perception of tourism. Both has its pros and cons respectively. Completely researching and studying the environmental and cultural feature, implementing the travel regulation and corresponding solutions can contribute overall economic developing, meanwhile bring a beautiful and happy life. Combining each form’s advantages will be the way of the future tourism. As the world slowly recovers from Covid-19 and borders gradually start to open, we expect travel to look a little different than it did pre-pandemic.