Mitosis and meiosis are both involved in the process of making new cells. However mitosis results in (body cells) and meiosis results in (gametes). The starting cell in both mitosis and meiosis is formed with 2 sets of chromosomes in humans that involves one set of 23 chromosomes from mum and 1 set of 23 chromosomes from dad.
Interphase is a part of mitosis and meiosis and it's a very important phase in the cell because it duplicates the chromosomes in both mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis has various stages: Interphase it's when the cell grows and DNA before moving into mitosis, Prophase the chromosomes are more visible and they start to pair up, Metaphase the chromosomes meet in the middle, Anaphase the centromeres are pulled apart and in Telophase, the cell splits and two nuclear embryos are formed.
Cytokinesis also occurs in mitosis, is where two daughter cells are split. Both mitosis and meiosis go through the stages listed above but meiosis goes through it twice. Meiosis has a number next to each stage. Prophase I in meiosis chromosomes pair up with their homologous pair, Metaphase I the chromosomes are in the middle however they are still in pairs, Anaphase I the chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite sides of the cell, Telophase I cell splits and two nuclear embryos are formed. As mentioned earlier meiosis goes through the process twice so in Prophase II the chromosomes are condensing, Metaphase II chromosomes are in a single line in the middle, Anaphase II this time the chromatids are pulled apart, Telophase the cell splits and two new embryos are formed.
At the end of the process of mitosis, we end up with two identical diploid cells whereas in meiosis we end up with 4 non-identical cell gametes. The gametes are used for fertilization that will combine in sexual reproduction to get a fertilized egg that can undergo mitosis to create an entirely new organism.
Mitosis and meiosis are both vital in human reproduction, meiosis is in charge that cells needed for sexual reproduction occurs and mitosis replicates non-sex cells needed for growth and development. Meiosis is important in genetic variation in offspring as a result of the method at random shuffles genes across chromosomes so at random separate half those chromosomes into every germ cell the 2 gametes then at random combines to make a brand new organism.
In meiosis genetic variation happens when homologous chromosomes exchange parts by crossing over. In prophase I the homologous chromosomes pair up, they have similar genes one chromosome came from mum and one came from dad as mentioned earlier. During meiosis, they look up for each other and pair together lengthwise and they exchange parts of their arms with each other. The genetic variation shows that different organism has different strengths and weaknesses.