Shortage of Water in Pakistan

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Pakistan is facing a lot of water shortage that is going to break the limit in the country in the coming years. Recently, the Indus River System Authority highlighted that the Indus irrigation system was the world's largest irrigation system for the summer season but because of the crisis it was critical and it had delayed the growing of the country’s main cash crops which includes cotton as well. Pakistan's water demand increased from 1990 to 2013. Pakistan is right now at an emergency stage because of water crisis the glaciers are melting and the crisis of water is at an alarming rate according to the resources the availability of water has decreased a lot like per person since 1951. Just because of the lack of reservoirs, Pakistan is losing its market value in an economy of about 10 billion RS per annum and it is a high period to take the issue of water shortage as a matter of death and life just for the sake of the economy of Pakistan. Finally, we recommend that the government has to take some action on this matter they have to make dams and should improve canal water supply management to save the future of Pakistani people.


When someone cannot access clean water for drinking that person is called water insecure but when a majority of people in a city started being water insecure for a long time then the city is called water scarce. Water scarcity does not have an easy definition but it is one the most disastrous realities that’s going to be done shortly and will be faced by mankind if they do not understand the value of water.

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The scarcity of water can be called a water shortage, or water crisis. There are several reasons for the water shortage it may occur due to climate change for example floods, weather, or increased pollution last but not least the overuse of water by humans.

The reason behind conducting the research is to make a public service awareness short film. There are different emotions and different treatment when it comes to social awareness films so in this whole report I am going to look into different academic journals and articles to collect information regarding different techniques moods and emotions for a public service message.

Water shortage in Pakistan

Pakistan stands amongst those countries that have negative consequences due to un conditional climate change. Pakistan is the 9th largest country in the world and the growth of population and the downfall of agricultural, urban, and development sectors increasing pressures in the environment along with the unconditional climate changes affecting agriculture and the economy of Pakistan as well.

The problems are flooding, weather behavior and sewage system. It is declared that climate change is the biggest problem because of that all progress targets from human life to education, and work. Along with that one of the major problems is the wastage of water by humans. Mostly Pakistan's water source is a canal irrigation system. Pakistan's major Region like Sindh Punjab and Baluchistan are dependent on river water

Reasons of the Study

Right now, Pakistan and some other countries are facing a water crisis as it's important to showcase this matter globally, so I have decided to make a short film on it so everyone can be aware of the situation these days. Well some of my reasons for the study are

    • a. To know how the water shortage is affecting Pakistan?
    • b. What possible reasons are to relate my film to this issue
    • c. To investigate in what ways the water shortage is affecting our lives

Research Question

Studying water scarcity the research question will be What are the problems that cause water shortage in Pakistan? How to make a social awareness film that can relate the whole theme to the audience?

Literature Review

Once upon a time when Pakistan was a fully resourceful country but now the country is deficient by the water crisis. The water resources of Pakistan mainly depend on the Indus River system. The lack of rainfall and unconditional weather is a barrier to agriculture.

Iram Khalid and Ishrat Begum (2013) in their paper study present the situation of Water crisis that water is the most essential gift from god for sustaining life on earth. The availability of food and for good healthy life fresh water is really important. Iram Khalid and Ishrat Begum indicate that the quantity and increasing demand of fresh water has made a huge gap between its availability and demand the only way is to construct additional water reservoirs such as dams. Because this problem is getting bigger day by day every province is phasing the rift. The Kalabagh dam will be constructed in Punjab the dam will be of 38 million feet of water dropping to sea. But the other problem is that three other provinces Sindh, K.PK, and Baluchistan are not in favor of Kalabagh dam for their royalty-related issues. Sindh province believes that storage of Indus water can seriously affect their ecosystem. People of provinces just do not want to share their water and they always keep their own interest over the national interest Irma Khalid and Ishrat Begum said that Pakistan has also failed to have any kind of water policy that is why it is an alarming situation for Pakistan. The current availability of water in Pakistan is about 1000m3 which clearly shows the scarcity in Pakistan. This is a show called Notice for Political Vision, pragmatic Policies, and an affective river regulation in Pakistan.

Iram Khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan (2016) in their study present the current water scarcity as A major human security challenge to Pakistan.

Iram Khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan (2016) say that water is an essential ingredient for the preservation of life on Earth. The quality of life of human beings, businesses, agriculture, and medicines all are connected with freshwater accessibility. The lack of water has made the demands high. Including Pakistan there are many other countries of the world especially in Asia the high population rates, climatic changes, governance malfunctions have made over stressed the water resources of the country. Iram Khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan said that water is not the only threat to Pakistan. The water-stressed conditions in the country are always misused by some pressure groups within the country to exploit the people on their agendas. Iram Khalid and Mazhar Abbas Khan said in their paper that these factors recommend some suggestions for both the state and the public to face the challenge by doing more with something else.

Abdul S. Khan, Shuhab D. Khan, and Din M. Kakar (2013) in their paper study the declining water resources in the Quetta Valley region of Pakistan. Quetta is a city of province Balochistan and in water shortage, land subsidence, and water quality problems. It's one of the largest populated cities in Balochistan. The major crops grown in Queeta include Dry fruits, grapes, apricots, apples, and wheat. The main source of water access in this region is groundwater for both domestic and agricultural use. Abdul S. Khan, Shuhab D. Khan, and Din M. Kakar found that this work presents global positioning system (GPS) data and assessment of different variations in water levels. The Quetta valley has vegetation and several types of plants along with a wide range of shrubs on the hills and nearby areas. Abdul S. Khan, Shuhab D. Khan, and Din M. Kakar found that agriculture is growing and groundwater is the main source of water for agriculture in Queeta but the water is declining and in action, additional wells made just to save the agricultural use, and the water was used by farmers.

Iftikhar and Chaudhry (2010) figured out in their studies. Pakistan has had only two major dams since its independence 1. Mangla and 2. Tarbela. These dams are losing their storage capacity due to stagnant water resources the water availability is decreasing. Iftikhar and Chaudhry also highlighted the problems in the agriculture sector and the lives of people. They also highlight the proposed and ongoing water projects and are said to have a proper plan and management to fulfill future requirements by managing solutions for water.

Pakistan is a country where food is arranged by agriculture and agriculture depends on water accessibility. A lack of water resources can have serious impacts on the country's economy. The amount of water is declining also because of population growth. Pakistan is said to be one of those countries which are dealing with water scarcity.

Magsi and Salman (2012) in their report of a study raise a point on mismanagement and failed water distribution policies because of the social conflicts and inter-provincial occurred. The report is based on several issues where Magsi and Salman try to evaluate the crisis of water in Pakistan province. Magsi and Salman said that there is a need to develop the Indus river system policies.

Water is the best product of nature and every individual has to take care of that in a report from the United Nations they had already warned us that the glaciers are melting because of global warming. In a country like Pakistan, it's really important to take this statement seriously because the increasing population and manufacturing companies are expanding day by day so the water demands are great each time. Pakistan will be the country that is going to be the victim of the melting of glaciers along with that it's already facing the problem of water shortage.

David Passig, Sigal Eden, and Mally Heled (03 April 2007) state that the study was examined under (VR) Virtual reality technology. The new immigrant student in a country was called for that. They divided students into two groups an experimental group where they chose the local students who would watch the life of a new immigrant student abroad and other was a control group means immigrant students who watched the movie on the same subject as that David Passig, Sigal Eden, Mally examined another group of teen immigrants who gives them the result that they wanted. Right after that, they ask all groups to fill up the questionnaire and conduct personal interviews as well both before the experiment and after the experiment. David Passig, Sigal Eden, and Mally Heled found the results that show the experience of a virtual reality is based on emotions and social experiences of new immigrant students but after the movie intensified the social feelings were found only in the control group.

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Shortage of Water in Pakistan. (2024, February 28). Edubirdie. Retrieved July 15, 2024, from
“Shortage of Water in Pakistan.” Edubirdie, 28 Feb. 2024,
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