Benefits of Public Parks to City Dwellers
The research focus on understanding public parks in cities and their benefits to city dwellers. The study is based on literature related to Public Park and their benefits include research papers. Understand benefits of Public Parks through various research domains are analyzed by different researcher in different context. Finding of the study is public parks are important space for city dwellers; provide benefit for cities dwellers in term of social interaction, cultural platform, economy generation, ecological development, health improvement. Major role of public parks in cities is place for recreation, opportunity for encounter, and place for relaxation, generate public realm.
A Park is an area of natural, semi-natural, or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of grassy areas, rocks, soil, and trees, but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments; fountains or playground structures (Wikipedia) Parks belong to a vast category of land uses termed public open places. These places cover a broad range of purposes that are devoted to serving the needs and interests of diverse groups and many subdivisions of the population. The simplest definition of a park is provided by Lynch, who describes parks as pieces of land that are colored green on planners’ maps.
City parks and open space improve our physical and psychological health, strengthen our communities, and make our cities and neighborhoods more attractive places to live and work. Numerous studies have shown the social, environmental, economic, and health benefits parks bring to a city and its people.
Parks are a neutral ground where people tolerate a wide range of activities and people, a place of freedom within the city green open spaces generate Opportunities for shelter and privacy while playing in private gardens have also been identified as favorites elements that are well remembered as childhood experiences by adults. Children’s experiences of vegetation as a play object, food, a task, an obstacle, an ornament or as adventure were identified in a research project. The importance of open spaces and parks in the urban situation for both active and passive recreation has been accepted since the investigation of parks in the nineteenth century, when public walks were seen as part of the recreational package of these spaces. Parks are well used at lunchtimes. The ethic of care can in fact have a positive impact on public open space by reducing the fear of crime and enhancing the perception of safety Parks encouraging older people to participate in physical activities may not only improve their physical fitness and sense of well-being but may also increase their IQ and longevity Urban outdoor activities’ can provide opportunities for young and old to develop feelings of well-being, self-confidence, relaxation and independence. People with disabilities have been encouraged to participate in sport with outdoor activities such as individual and team ball games, athletics and camping proving to be good at providing variety, pleasure and an opportunity for personal progression. Urban parks, in particular, are used for a range of events which might increase the sense of community. It has been estimated that the numbers of people now using urban open spaces annually for events is more than the numbers using such spaces for active sport.Teenagers in Australia value developed parks. Different racial groups were identified as having different approaches to active and passive recreation in thirteen parks in Chicago In Los Angeles it was identified that people from ethnically and socially diverse backgrounds all used parks because they offered greenery and recreational opportunities for people and their children The existence of trees as well as grass in public areas can be an attraction for people to spend more time outdoors, which improves social interaction among the members of the community. User’s behavior settings observed and classified into 4 main categories as health related social interaction , recreational and others.
The purpose of urban green space is a kind of the levels of urban land use and man-made vegetation that has socio-economic efficiency and also ecological efficiency. Beside psychological, health and aesthetic benefits, natural features in cities can have other social benefits. Nature can encourage the use of outdoor spaces, increases social integration and interaction among neighbors. Greenery helps people to relax and renew, reducing aggression. The diversity and richness of these areas and spaces contribute to the physical and mental health of urban inhabitants presence of natural features such as gardens, urban parks, forests, and green belts with their particular components (trees, shrubs, water etc.) contribute to quality of life in many ways. Urban green spaces have been shown to improve health and well-being through conferring a number of ecosystem services. Urban green spaces reduce noise pollution. Urban green spaces improving air quality through absorbing and shielding from particulates preventing heat stress by providing shade. The presence of greenness was found to be positively related to active park use. Pollution levels in larger parks are probably lower because there is more space for air dispersion and noise attenuation. Urban inhabitants’ perception of environmental amenity is more related to the green space than to the acoustical environment. Creation of urban green spaces is one of the solutions for solving environmental problems and even more this effort converts urban environment to habitable environment for citizens. The purpose of urban green space is a kind of the levels of urban land use and man-made vegetation that has socio-economic efficiency and also ecological efficiency. Microclimate regulation. Air quality regulation.
Property value increases. Enhanced marketability and faster sales it helps to create a favorable image for a place, boosting retail sales attracting tourism encouraging employment. The economic value of the urban green spaces is the sum of values that people, both individually and collectively, attach to nature. Park improve health, business activity & reduce crime.
Proximity to green space was associated with lower rates of self-reported ill health, lack of social support and loneliness. Described health, social and economic benefits of parks. Proposed a conceptual model of the environmental attributes of a park that affects park use. Studies suggest that green infrastructure may have a considerable potential for improving the health of urban residents. Proposed a conceptual model linking green infrastructure, ecosystem health and human health and well-being. Highlighted a need to evaluate the potential economic implications of green infrastructure. Urban areas with walk able green space associated with increased survival of senior citizens. Respondents with higher levels of green space reported being less affected by stressful life events, and better perceived mental health. Greater use of green space associated with less reported stress .Closer proximity to green space was also associated with better self-reported health. Greater access to parks was associated with increased levels of physical activity participation by children. Perception of neighborhood greenness associated with better physical and mental health.
From the above studies it is observed that public park is an important space for city dwellers. Park in cities act as an economy generator, provide cultural platform, improve health condition and social interaction of city dwellers, it also reduces crime in city and generate safety and security among the citizens. Major role of public parks in cities is place for recreation, opportunity for encounter, and place for relaxation .Public Parks are creating image through its character and become identity for city. It acts as attractive tourist spot for city. And many more other benefit observe by researcher most of them are social, ecological, economical, health and cultural. Individual of each age group, gender, use park for different activity; generate liveliness, and public realm help to improve quality of life.
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