On 1st of October 2018, ten years had passed since the deployment of European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM) in Georgia. For over a decade the EUMM has contributed to enhanced security and stability, conducting over 65,000 patrols on the ground. Over 1,700 EU nationals have served in the Mission over the years (statistics taken from EEAS’s homepage). That staff have come from all 28 EU Member States and this can be said to be the strongest evidence referring to them...
As the official currency used by the 27 member states of the European Union (EU), the euro is one of the main currencies traded by market participants and has an influence on global markets. Although it was launched since January 1, 1999, physically the euro was used on January 1, 2002. Since its introduction, only 19 member of European Union countries have directly used the euro as official currency and 8 other countries still use their local currency. Why don’t...
‘A federated Europe is essential to the security and peace of the free world.’ Jean Monnet, a French political economist and a founding member of the European Union reiterated in his quote, the need for European countries to set aside their differences and envision a unified Europe. The world wars had wounded Europe and it was time for it to heal. The only way Europe would rebuild itself would be through integration of European countries into a superstate. Essentially it...
The state of Europe’s current economic recession taints all promise for its future, its excellence, and its international prestige, as manufacturing in the EU has hit its lowest point since the previous eurozone crisis in October 2012 and is expected to stay this way for the rest of 2019. Although the euro, a common currency shaping the eurozone as a monetary union in which 19 of the 28 countries in the EU recognize the euro as its sole legal tender,...
The European Union (EU) is a remarkable and world widely unique case of regional integration (Hix, 2017, p. 580). After the two world wars in the first half of the 20th century, some of the European countries decided to voluntarily yield part of their sovereignty to supranational institutions to ensure a long-lasting peace through regional integration and to enjoy the greater advantages of collective cooperation. The EU, at that time called European Community, was first formed at the beginning of...
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The legal idea of EU citizenship was first systematized in the Maastricht Treaty. In spite of the fact that the idea was not significantly shifted in the Lisbon Treaty, Articles 20-25 TFEU made new political and electoral rights, and above all, they fortified the current privileges of movement and residence officially ensured under the umbrella of EU citizenship by associating them to the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of nationality. Before Maastricht, the early idea of EU citizenship was held...
Try to imagine what historians will recall about the European Union in 100 years regarding its future – does it still exist? Were all the common goals achieved? Did a war ever threaten the safety of the member states? The first goal ever set by EU was to achieve peace among its member states after the second world war, which coincides with the hopes of its founders when it was established in 1993. Since that time, all member states have...
Advantages or Disadvantages The Freedom of Movement and the Schengen Agreement: According to Article 21 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (former Article 18 of the Treaty establishing the European Community), all Union citizens are entitled to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States. (Ristea, 2011) The freedom of movement has been accelerated by the Schengen Agreement, the gradual phasing-out of internal borders under the Schengen agreements was followed by the adoption...
1.0 Introduction The European Union is guided by a number of provisions that are based on diverse values that are embraced by this union. These provisions are generally categorized into seven articles. One of the most significant provisions that guide the relationships of the member states of the European Union is associated with Article 2. Article 2 provides that the European Union is founded on the critical values of respect for freedom, democracy and dignity of persons, as well as...
The European Project has always been more or less ambiguous about its objective. The famous Schuman Declaration of 9 May 1950, considered to be the guiding principle behind the European project, is without doubt the clearest of the founding texts. It assigned the six signatory states the objective of achieving, through the European Coal and Steel Community, “the setting up of common foundations for economic development as a first step in the federation of Europe”. Federation was what it was...
This assignment was prepared with the intent to critically analyze the European development through crises that drive integration and collaboration, strongly focusing on the impacts of the Euro crisis and elements of the recent Brexit event. A further strategic examination was carried out to address regional integration theories in the context of the EU’s development as well as confidently evaluate the political, social, and economic diversity of its member states. Qualitative data was gathered from various sources to express views...
The Cold War was a period of extreme tension between the US and the USSR. The presence of a bipolar system, competing ideologies, and the threat of nuclear war, coupled with the global impact it had, were definitive features of the Cold War. However, today tensions between Russia, the EU and NATO are very different; Russia is no longer a superpower, there is no serious ideological competition, and they have not come close to the threat of nuclear war seen...