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Sustainable development refers to the efficient working in an economy by which future generations can be better off. It is core linked with the maximum utilization of resources in a country, as when resources will be maintained they will not deplete which means future generations will be better off. This report focuses on how Pakistan can overcome the Inequality problem. Sustainable development was presented in United Nations, which it was outlined what are the specified indicators for sustainable development. We will discuss Inequality that how it is a hurdle in aiming to get SD( sustainable development).
In general when we talk about inequality in means unfair. When we talk about inequality in the context of the economy, it means the unfair treatment between rich and poor, wealth inequality, and income & pays inequality. We have to understand that in order to get benefit from sustainable development we have to reduce inequality in a practical manner, as in the field it cannot be zero, but yeah it can be minimized. Pakistan is currently facing an inequality gap to a dangerous extent. In every field, we can see and judge easily and will also agree that yes! , there is inequality and sadly if our position yet remains the same, we will destroy in future years. Pakistan is a less economically developed economy and the govt. should work on the minimization of inequality as it causes the following problems in long run.
In this year condition was at their worse, inequality broke all the records that we can’t imagine. Only few locals had a facility of clean water, justice, health, and education, in short, only a few had the facility to enjoy happy and ideal living in Pakistan. Dawn news stated that in Pakistan there was an extremely unhealthy pattern of spending by the rich. As per reports, in 2015, 18 million of the richest consumers is 1.5 more than 72 million people. One more example was in education where it was proved and claimed that 80% of rich people attended school, while the other hand, only 50% of the poor population attended it. There was gender inequality too. The female participation rate was only 18% in comparison of 71% of men. This aspect was highlighted in the Human development report of South Asia by Mehboob Ur Rehman. it was said, however, according to Human Development in South Asia 20102011: Food Security in South Asia by the Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre, the share of the female labor force in the total agricultural labor force in Pakistan since 1980 has increased to 30 percent.
This is the period of Pakistan Tahreek Insaf, and there is only 3 months since this year started. There is no such intervention but small. Like in the last 3 months government raised the number of houses given to poor people for rest which is referred as Aram Gah. As many people in Pakistan sleeps on the road which is an example of inequality with poor, the poor are getting houses to sleep, eat, etc. thus reduction in inequality. Moving forward following is the govt. intervention in 2021 with the aim of reduction in inequality.
As we know sugar is a basic need in today’s living. The artificial shortage was created by the monopolists, by which prices rose to like more than 40% which caused unhealthy inflation. Poor got affected and it created inequality. But Imran khan in his interview stated that we have exposed all the sugar mafia to a deadly introduction to investment and developmental programs by the govt.
To overcome inequalities govt. should adopt specified theories. Macroeconomic policies will be discussed further as theories. on the first fiscal policy. It is a demand-side policy in which govt. can use to control the aggregate demand of Pakistan. it has two tools taxes and govt spending. now the question arises how Pakistan govt. can use it to reduce inequality, so let us explain. When govt. will increase spending in the economy for example it spends on health and care, and education so by the poor will get educated and also they will benefit from health. this will reduce inequality between rich and poor . as far as taxes are focused, if govt increase the level of taxes on people follow a progressive tax system, so it means rich will pay more tax thus that tax amount will be used as spending on poor, causing equality between them. Fiscal policy is a demand-side policy and in Pakistan, the aggregate demand result by the rich is higher while by the poor is low. When govt. will enhance its spending on the poor it will raise aggregate demand thus again inequalities will fall.
As we can see from the above diagram when aggregate demand raises prices also rises, it means more demand in Pakistan means the poor will demand more too, higher price means higher taxes to be imposed thus more spending on the poor. On the other hand, when GDP will raise Pakistan will be able to avail economic growth, thus poor will get jobs, etc and it will reduce job inequality in our country.
The second theory is Supply side policies by govt. supply-side policies are to control the aggregate supply of the economy. If for example govt. gives grants and subsidies to sellers, it will cause a reduction in prices of basic needy goods in society such as flour, sugar, oil etc. . by this poor will be able to fulfill their basic demands and they can save their money too.it means poor will be better off . Supply-side policies also include the rise of productivity of Pakistan. When govt will raise the productivity so firms will higher more labor. Again we can see that poor will get jobs by which rate of unemployment will be reduced also the dependency ratio within Pakistan, thus a fall in inequalities to a positive manner in long term.
Can Pakistan achieve the goal of inequality reduction?
According to US pak report
Pakistan govt. has to understand the current, whether it’s now or never. When we will be out of the league of less developed economies? , when we will achieve sustainable growth? When we will reduce inequality? the policies are the theories presented by economists and govt has to follow them in order to avail the goal. Its true that these theories have limitations too but govt has to figure it out how to minimize the drawbacks of these theories. Thus, when inequality will be reduced in Pakistan, the poverty rate will be reduced also with the dependency ratio. Moreover poor will be treated well like rich people. They will also be educated and will avail of help benefits. Most important of all, the poor will seek justice, and our country will be ranked better. So we hope a better Pakistan in future years, and we should also play our role as one community to minimize inequality, like the general public can carry out Zakat in an efficient manner, etc.
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