The Role Of Motivation In Language Learning

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Generally, motivation has been accepted as the main reason of increasing life conditions,prosperity and pleasure(Iguisi,2009).Motivation relates to promote somebody or be included in an activity, also it has a role in order to clarify why people pursue a goal while somebody avoid(Schunk et al(1992) cited in Al Kaabi(2016).Ryan,(2002)cited in Al Kaabi,(2009)that it has been included in different aspects science such as phenomenological, physiological even cultural form. As Seifert (2004)pointed out, in order to explain effects of motivation substantail effort have been spent by pschologist.

Recently, there are four prominent theories about motivation such as: self efficacy,attribution,self worth and achievement theory.According to Bandura(1994)self efficacy relates to confidence. Efficacy provides people accomplishment and feeling strong in every condition. Humans with efficacy have high assurance in their capacity even difficult events.On the other hand the self worth described by Covington(2000)as the theory regards that includes all self efficacy aspects. Obviously,two different kinds of achievement motivation have been occured since past half centruy.In addition first became the main aspect that examines motivation as a drive for example:an interior state,requirement or personal ideas for motivation. These general requirements have been conducted with earlier studies of motivation that emphasize motivation as an internal element which encourage people to achieve something(Convigton(2000)cited in Woodworth (1918).

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It must be noted that,motivation can be taught one of the main item of second language learning also over three decades motivation have been seen a significant study that investigates importance of motivation in the language learning process. It is argued that whether social factors have effect on language learning process or not.One considerable question in recent years has been how social factors conducted with L2 motivation.In addition it will explain the connection between socail behaviours and motivation(Dorneyi,1994)Typically,there is a basic difference between attitude and motivation even though both of them accepted as key factor of pschology.Attitude is general and it is attached with sociology.The action can be observed in social groups also between interpersonal relationships.

However, motivation covers many expressions and it is more comprehensive notion rather than attitude(Dorneyi,1994).It is stated that motivation includes instinct,drive,personal behaviours and requirements.Particularly,L2 learning demonstrates single condition because of being exact role of language. It is known that motivation has great role on language learning.Schmidt and Watanabe (2001)claims that second language teachers realizes that motivation is powerful source because it provides opportunity to know more, encourages students in language learning process, enables students facilitated environment.Some teachers believe that curriculum improvement not only develop language ability and promote students to learn. Liuoliene et al(2006)stated that motivation has vital role in the learner’s success;it is often connected with the capability to achieve rather than other objects.In addition language attitude to affect success has two ways such as in positive and in negative.In contrast.Motivation is divided into two groups:goal and core motivation.Firstly,motivation at goal category involves core motivation,language oriented process, specially learner’s behaviours in language learning process. However, core motivation of Gardner includes three aspects :affect, want and effort (Liuoliene et al (2006)cited in Gardner(1993).

In fact,there are two versions of motivation:extrinsic and intrinsic.Intrinsic motivation encourages students engage in a task for its own willing,fort he enjoyment of its enhancement.In other case, extrinsic motivation provides encourage students with rewards or grades which given by teachers(Blaze(2010)cited in Lepper(1988).The main comparison between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation suggested by researches is that students can increase their abilities,also they will attain high grades rather than extrinsic motivation.If students motivated intrinsically they could be able to improve their language capacities,also they can improve some strategies for learning such as being hopeful and patient produce more effort, feel self efficacy,improve useful materials.If students motived extrinsically students could prefer even difficulties and attain lower grade(Blazer(2010)cited in Brewester et al(2000). Motivation of students can be influenced not only internal but also external factors. Internal factors conducted with personal ideas responsibilities,values and abilities. External factors involves habited motivation (Blazer(2010)cited in Malauff et al(2008).

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