What are microorganism? We refer a microorganism as a living thing that is too small to seen with the naked eye. An Examples of microorganisms include bacteria, archaea, algae, protozoa, and microscopic animals such as the spider mites. We only realized the existence of microorganism in 1665, this was because Anton von Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope. Before that time, it was thought that phenomena such as illness and food spoilage were caused by “spontaneous generation.” Leeuwenhoek discoveries lead to Louis...
Introduction Viruses are considered as extremely successful predators as they can replicate and control the host cell synthesizing machinery. Viruses have coevolved with their hosts and thus have limited pathogenicity in any immunocompromised natural host. Viruses can exist in two forms: Extra cellular virion particles Intracellular genomes. Virions are more resistant to physical stress than genomes but are susceptible to humoral immune control. Nevertheless, to exist as a species, virus replication and transfer to a new host are essential. Virus...
Microorganisms are small, as the name implies, they can’t be viewed in the naked eye without the help of a microscope and techannly microbes are organisms that are microscopic. They are present in all living organisms and are responsible for producing energy sources like nitrogen and carbon etc.While a few microbes are harmful in their nature, other microorganisms are incredibly salutary in all aspects of human life. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first microbiologist to study muscle fibres, bacteria, spermatozoa...
Introduction As the name suggests, biotechnology is technology that is based on biology. It utilises cellular and biomolecular procedures to develop products and methods which can be used to enhance business processes and improve our quality of life as well as the health of the environment (Bio, 2020). Mankind’s use of these biological processes are by no means a novel occurrence as we have utilised them for thousands of years to preserve food and produce food products such as cheese,...
Mitosis and meiosis are both involved in the process of making new cells. However mitosis results in (body cells) and meiosis results in (gametes). The starting cell in both mitosis and meiosis is formed with 2 sets of chromosomes in humans that involves one set of 23 chromosomes from mum and 1 set of 23 chromosomes from dad. Interphase is a part of mitosis and meiosis and it’s a very important phase in the cell because it duplicates the chromosomes...
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Abstract The biopesticide sector is rapidly experiencing a significant growth by introducing biopesticidal product in the global market. The number of micro-organisms is included in the taxonomy of Microbial Biopesticides which include baculoviruses, fungi, nematodes, and bacteria. Few decades ago, with the use of microbial species, and entomopathogenic bacterium a new microbial species have been discovered with particular virulence factors and toxins. It has been recorded that fungi comprised of versatile strains which include Verticillium, Hirsutella, Paecilomyces, Isaria, Anisopliae, Brongniartii,...
Enterococci are facultative anaerobic and Gram-positive bacteria often forming normal fecal flora of humans. However, these bacteria are increasingly appearing as primary pathogens among patients with compromised immune systems (Hemalatha, Bhaskaran, Sowmiya, & Anusheela Howlader, 2017). This manifestation is believed to be due to its resistance to various antibiotics along with its ability to form biofilms and acquiring some virulence factors (Santajit & Indrawattana, 2016). Enterococci in hospitals lead to the urinary tract, soft tissue, and bacteremia infection in patients...
In cancer research, viability tests are immensely significant. These tests are used to observe the characteristics of different kinds of cancer. In drug development, viability of hostile cells are tested against chemical substances to evaluate the potential of those substances in pharmaceutical use. Additionally, the adequate dosage for those drugs are also studied in vitro. Established in 1977 from a patient with acute myeloid lymphoma in the National Cancer Institute in the United States, human Caucasian promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells...
The 3D printing of mechanical pathways for nerves provides the life-changing possibility for someone to feel again. Whilst the development of needle-free drug delivery has supplied third-world countries with vaccines, the real-life inconveniences are often resolved due to bioengineering. My fascination with bioengineering is that unlike other engineering disciplines, who seek to further our quality of life, bioengineers design the solutions to make life more convenient, by directly improving our health and wellbeing. Reading recent articles, it is evident how...
Cell Division Mitosis Mitosis is a stage within the cell cycle whereby the parent cells divide into two to produce two identical daughter cells. Each daughter cell results with the same identical genetic information like the original mother as well the fertilised egg in which it originated from. Mitosis is the division of non-sexual cells. It is significant because it takes part in the development of embryos and the growth and progression of bodies. The nucleus divides and imitates the...